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Awards

Topic Information Award/Contract Number Proposal Information Company Performance
Period
Award/Contract
Value
Abstract

08.1-2
Fast, Solid-State, Prompt Neutron Detectors Capable of Operating in Non-Invasive Interrogation Environments

HSHQDC-09-C-00092 SBIR-08-1-TA2-RMD1-II
(HSHQDC-08-R-00066 Phase II)
CVD Diamond Neutron Detectors with Pulse Shape Discrimination

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

08/03/2009
to
08/02/2010
$499,799.63

Proliferation of nuclear weapons is a serious threat in the world today. One way to determine the presence of nuclear weapons is to detect neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) such as highly enriched uranium and weapons grade plutonium. The purpose of this project is to develop improved solid state neutron detectors from CVD diamond for homeland security applications. During Phase II we will focus on optimizing electronic properties of CVD diamond films for neutron detection, increasing the neutron detection efficiency by scaling up the film thickness and area and developing a CVD diamond-based portable instrument for neutron detection. Diamond has a high cross-section for fission neutron scattering and low sensitivity to gamma rays. Diamond also has a wide band gap for low noise, room temperature operation, high electron and hole mobility for fast response, and high displacement energy for high radiation hardness. Commercial applications include homeland security, nuclear and high-energy physics research, and medical dosimetry.

10.1-2
Neutron detectors including replacement for He-3

HSHQDC-11-C-00061 HSHQDC-10-R-00030-1011009-II
(HSHQDC-10-R-00030 Phase II)
New Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials for Neutron Detection

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

07/06/2011
to
07/05/2013
$999,998.00

In the proposed program, we plan to investigate novel semiconductor neutron detectors based on the wide bandgap lithium containing compositions LiGaSe2, LiGaTe2, LiInS2, and LiInSe2. The goal of the program is to produce detector quality crystals and to demonstrate efficient thermal neutron detection, with the possibility of providing neutron gamma discrimination. We will examine the synthesis and purification of high quality starting materials and the growth of single crystals. We will evaluate the electronic, charge transport, and detection response characteristics of the materials that are produced. Thermal neutron detection studies and neutron gamma discrimination will be investigated. A compact low cost solid state thermal neutron detection system based on any of these materials would be a major breakthrough over conventional thermal neutron detectors, such as 3He tubes, which are currently in short supply. This development would open up many potential commercial applications for systems based on these detectors. Beyond nuclear non-proliferation monitoring, neutron detection has important applications in several areas, including nuclear physics, oil exploration, materials characterization, biological research, nuclear waste characterization, health physics, and non destructive evaluation.

10.1-2
Neutron detectors including replacement for He-3

HSHQDC-11-C-00033 HSHQDC-10-R-00030-1011012-II
(HSHQDC-10-R-00030 Phase II)
New Scintillator for Neutron Detection

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

05/31/2011
to
07/12/2012
$900,000.00

Neutron detection is one of the methods used in revealing illicit nuclear materials. Currently, there is an ongoing search for new and better neutron detectors prompted by anticipated shortages of He-3 that is used in many of the current detection systems. This effort proposes and investigation and development of a new thermal neutron and gamma scintillator. The scintillator belongs to already proven elpasolite crystal family. The main advantages of this material are due to avoidance of Cl (parasitic neutron absorption) and La (introduces radioactive isotopes) ions in the composition. This leads to a scintillator that is more efficient for thermal neutron detection and has lower intrinsic background. The material already showed that it is capable of discrimination between neutrons and gammas, a feature required in detectors to replace He-3 tubes. In addition, like other elpasolite crystals, the material should also provide excellent gamma energy resolution. We expect it to be better than 4 percent at 662 keV, which is almost twice as good as 7 percent for NaI:Tl (the most popular gamma scintillator). Phase I of the project will investigate in detail the properties of this material and provide optimal configuration for obtaining pulse shape discrimination and energy resolution

10.1-2
Neutron detectors including replacement for He-3

HSHQDC-11-C-00084 HSHQDC-10-R-00030-1011046-II
(HSHQDC-10-R-00030 Phase II)
High Performance Portable Neutron Detector

Agiltron, Inc.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801-1003

08/31/2011
to
12/31/2013
$250,000.00

A Neutron detection device is an indispensable tool for power, medical, and defense applications. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons is a serious threat in today's world. Low cost, low power, high performance, rugged and portable neutron detection devices are highly desirable for these applications. Agiltron proposes an unprecedented fabrication and integration approach to make these solid-state neutron detectors commercially available at low cost for large-scale deployment. The success of this project will lead to the large-scale manufacture of these unmatched next generation neutron detectors.

11.1-001
Development of commercial hand-held and backpack neutron detectors

HSHQDC-12-C-00012 SBIR11-1-SBIR11.1-001-FP-008-II
(HSHQDC-11-R-00087 Phase II)
Hand-held Neutron Detector

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

05/16/2012
to
10/31/2014
$999,994.00

Proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons is a serious threat. Prevention of their spread has reached a state of heightened urgency in recent years. One of the ways to passively determine the presence of nuclear weapons is to detect and identify characteristic signatures of highly enriched uranium and weapons grade plutonium. Neutrons and gamma rays are two signatures of these materials. Gamma ray detection techniques are useful because the presence of gamma rays of specific energies can confirm the presence of a particular isotope. This technique however, has one significant limitation. In the presence of a dense surrounding material such as lead, gamma ray attenuation can be significant. This can mask the gamma ray signatures of these special nuclear materials (SNM). Neutrons, on the other hand, easily penetrate dense and high atomic number materials. For heterogeneous or dense materials such as samples of metals, oxides, and nuclear waste, gamma ray attenuation is too high to permit accurate correction of the measured signal. Under these circumstances, passive assay techniques based on neutron detection are preferable. When detected, neutrons directly indicate the presence of spontaneously fissioning isotopes (plutonium and californium) and induced fissions (uranium). Therefore, neutron detection is an important component of the overall detection techniques used in identifying SNM. In radioisotope identification devices to date, the neutron detection was readily achieved using He-3 tubes. Unfortunately, in recent years the quantity of this gas is becoming limited, therefore, new solutions are required for an efficient detection system that would allow neutron detection with an ability to discriminate gamma ray events from neutron events. Gamma discrimination is critical because gamma rays are common background in neutron detection environment during SNM monitoring. In this project we propose a handheld thermal neutron detector based on a Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillator [Combes, van Loef], which is an ideal candidate for the task [Bessiere, Glodo 08, Glodo 09]. CLYC offers (1) efficient thermal neutron detection (higher per-volume than He-3); (2) excellent separation between gamma and neutron particles (better than 10-6); and (3) gamma-ray energy resolution as good as 4% at 662 keV for dual mode (neutron and gamma) detectors. The last property is very fortunate, since the majority of current handheld thermal neutron detectors include a separate gamma detector. In most cases, in addition to neutron counts the detection system should provide information about the dose rate and / or simple isotope characterization based on four categories ¿ NORM (Natural occurring radiation materials), SNM (Special nuclear materials), Medical and Industrial Radio-nuclides. The good gamma ray energy resolution of CLYC should guarantee an accurate energy compensated dose rate and reliable characterization of gamma ray radiation. In the last couple of years, CLYC manufacturing has progressed and 1 and 2 inch crystals are being routinely grown at RMD for internal and government purposes [Higgins]. Crystals with diameter as large as 3 inch have been grown. Moreover, the CLYC technology is currently being transferred by RMD to a commercial setting (Hilger), where full scale manufacturing of these crystals will take place. The final goal of this effort is to develop a handheld thermal neutron detector utilizing CLYC scintillators. In Phase I of the project we provided strong foundations for achieving this goal. We have shown that CLYC works well with silicon photomultipliers (MPPC from Hamamatsu). A CLYC/MPPC system provides a very compact device due to small size of this light detector.Built detectors showed clear neutron peaks (7% energy resolution), were capable of pulse shape discrimination, and could easily provide dose equivalent information for gamma ray radiation. Such combination works even if the crystal is in a form of a 1 in right cylinder, although pillar type geometry was found to be optimal from the efficiency point of view. Due to their optimal surface to volume ratio, our pillar detectors provided twice as many counts as a high pressure He-3 tube per volume unit. The objective of the Phase II effort is to design and construct prototypes of a compact neutron detector based on the CLYC scintillator. The Phase II work will be based on the Phase I experiments and results. It will focus on developing the detector and instrumentation technology to achieve the project goal of designing and prototyping a compact handheld neutron detector. The main areas of research and development will include (1) detector module optimization, such as detector form factor, light readout, and interface; (2) study of the detector signal shape and PSD performance as a function of the temperature and temperature stabilization of the system; (3) electronic module design and prototype development. Our goal will be to develop and realize a concept that can be expanded into multi-component systems, e.g. backpack implementation. In this project we will collaborate with Dr. Sara Pozzi at the University of Michigan. She will assist with the modeling and optimization of the neutron and gamma ray response of our detectors. The optimization will include detector and moderator dimensions.

11.1-001
Development of commercial hand-held and backpack neutron detectors

HSHQDC-12-C-00021 SBIR11-1-SBIR11.1-001-FP-015-II
(HSHQDC-11-R-00087 Phase II)
Low Dark Current Portable Neutron Detector

Agiltron, Inc.
15 Presidential Way
Woburn, MA 01801-1003

08/06/2012
to
08/05/2014
$369,465.70

A Neutron detection device is an indispensable tool for power, medical, defense, and homeland security applications. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons is a serious threat in today¿s world. Low cost, low power, high performance, rugged and portable neutron detection devices are highly desirable for these applications. Yet, the cost and production volume of the traditional He-3 tube based neutron detector are greatly limited by the availability of the He-3 rare gas. Agiltron proposes an unprecedented fabrication and integration approach to make a boron-10 filled micro-fabricated solid-state neutron detector, which, with performance readily able to replace the He-3 tubes, can be commercially manufactured at low cost for largescale deployment. Our success in Phase I demonstrated the feasibility of key fabrication steps and provided a rationale for carrying out the detector prototype development in Phase II, which will further lead to the large-scale manufacture of these next generation neutron detectors.

11.1-003
Growth & Characterization of New, Promising Advanced Scintillator Materials

HSHQDC-12-C-00016 SBIR11-1-SBIR11.1-003-FP-001-II
(HSHQDC-11-R-00087 Phase II)
Eu2 Doped CSBal3 and CsBa215 Scintillators for Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

05/15/2012
to
06/18/2014
$999,995.00

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear missiles and "dirty bombs" is a serious threat in the world today. Preventing the spread of these nuclear weapons has reached a state of heightened urgency in recent years, more so since the events on September 11, 2001 and its aftermath. Gamma-ray spectrometers are an important tool in monitoring the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Important requirements for the gamma-ray spectrometers used for nuclear non-proliferation include high energy resolution, high detection efficiency, low cost and reasonably fast response. None of the existing gamma-ray detectors satisfy all these requirements. Recently, a new class of Eu2+ doped scintillators based on BaI2-CsI compositions have shown considerable promise in gamma-ray spectroscopy. The goal of the proposed effort is to investigate and advance this promising class of scintillators. Anticipated Benefits New scintillator materials with high light output, excellent proportionality, very high energy resolution and reasonably fast response would offer unique advantages over many of the existing scintillators used in gamma-ray studies. The application addressed in this proposal is nuclear non-proliferation, where the proposed scintillators would offer better isotope identification with fewer false alarms. These scintillators will be useful in other areas too. Clinical SPECT systems and gamma-cameras, surgical probes, small animal imaging systems, and dedicated organ imaging systems would all benefit from the proposed innovation due to possibility of improved scatter rejection and higher spatial resolution. These sensors also have critical applications in other areas. The increased interest and commitment to quality control has motivated many industrial groups to develop gamma-ray based nondestructive testing equipment. High counting rates, wide dynamic range, high sensitivity, and low noise performance are important to minimize the required source strength which must be located on the production floor. This is an area in which the compactness, and flexibility of a high performance detector will have a major impact. Other applications include nuclear physics research, environmental monitoring, nuclear waste clean-up, astronomy and well-logging. References Dr. Stephen Payne, LLNL, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (925) 423-0570, payne3@llnl.gov Dr. Zhong He, U. of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (734) 764- 7130, hezhong@umich.edu Dr. William Moses, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd. Berkeley, CA 94720 (510) 486-4432, WWMoses@lbl.gov

11.1-003
Growth & Characterization of New, Promising Advanced Scintillator Materials

HSHQDC-12-C-00048 SBIR11-1-SBIR11.1-003-FP-006-II
(HSHQDC-11-R-00087 Phase II)
Low -Stress Growth of BaBrI and CsBa2I5 Scintillators

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Sutie 1B
Natick, MA 01760-1325

09/06/2012
to
09/05/2014
$500,000.00

The recent discovery of Eu activated alkali-earth halide scintillators promises to revolutionize remote detection and identification of radioisotopes. This proposal addresses the development of methods for production of large-volume, high-quality CsBa2I5scintillators. High-quality, low-cost scintillators for detection of gamma-rays are needed for monitoring of nuclear non-proliferation and homeland security. The same scintillators can be used to significantly improve the performance and lower the cost of applications involving X-ray detection in nuclear medicine imaging and diagnostics , X-ray detectors for non-destructive testing, and environmental contamination monitoring. The work proposed here promises to result in production of scintillators for government and commercial applications with much higher performance and at much lower cost than currently available

12.1-001
High Purity Precursor Materials for Growth of Large Single Crystals

HSHQDC-13-C-00080 DNDOSBIR12-01-FP-001-CAPE-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Establishment of Scientific and Industrial Base for Production of High Purity Precursor Materials for SrI2: Eu and CLYC

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Suite 1B
Natick, MA 01760-1325

08/12/2013
to
07/31/2015
$998,062.73

Successful growth of novel halide scintillators SrI2:Eu and CLYC depends on a supply of highly pure precursor materials. CapeSym and SAFC have partnered to develop a thorough understanding of the factors that influence purity, and techniques to reduce these impurity levels in SrI2:Eu and CLYC precursors. Novel processing and crystal growth experiments at CapeSym, and materials characterization at SAFC-Hitech will be used to assess the impact of purification techniques. Technologies will be transferred to SAFC-Hitech for implementation into production processes. In parallel we will conduct market research and pricing analysis to better estimate volumes needed to meet DHS requirements. Anticipated benefits include: - increased understanding of binary-halide contamination issues - improved precursor processing techniques - improved scintillator performance - a roadmap for attaining precursor cost reduction.

12.1-002
Embedding of Advanced Search Technique for Detect, Locate, and Track for Pedestrian-based Search

HSHQDC-13-C-00083 DNDOSBIR12-02-FP-001-PSI-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Embedded Search and ID Algorithms for Human Portable Radiation Detectors

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

10/01/2013
to
09/30/2015
$999,785.00

Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop, implement, and test algorithms and hardware to enhance pedestrian search for radioactive threats employing man-portable radiation detectors through the use of advanced search techniques enabled by smartphone technology. The proposed solution will add significant value to the search missions carried out by first responders, customs and border protection officers, or military personnel engaged in pedestrian searches for radiological threats. The algorithms will analyze data from smartphone sensors (e.g. gyroscope, magnetometer, and camera) in conjunction with gamma spectra collected by a medium-resolution detector to determine and communicate to the user estimates of source location. The threat localization approach will be enhanced through the use of spectroscopic detection and identification information generated by advanced algorithms. These algorithms have been demonstrated to significantly improve detection sensitivity while reducing operational false alarms using low integration time spectra. The functionality will provide a complete search capability to the end users resulting in source localization inside a 100 m x 100 m search area within 10 minutes of entry. A nominal 1 mCi 137Cs threat will be localized to within 2 meters after 1-2 minutes from detection. The Phase II program will build upon algorithms supporting a systematic localization methodology developed and tested during the Phase I program. The Phase I system concept will be formulated into detailed software/hardware designs. The search algorithms will be embedded as part of a prototype Smart Hand Held Detector (SHHD) to facilitate the optimization of search methods and to enable testing and evaluation. The Phase II base program will result in a TRL 4 brassboard prototype that will be extensively tested in relevant environments. In Year 2 of the effort, independent testing by third parties will be used as a means to evaluate system performance and to collect user feedback. The feedback will be incorporated in a review of the prototype design and CONOPS, which will be modified as necessary. At the end of the successful program, PSI will demonstrate a TRL 5 capability that achieves the SHHD Threshold Key Performance Parameters. The SHHD will be at a sufficient MRL for low-rate initial production. Sales of the pedestrian search capability will be through value added resellers of detector technology and will be complemented by the licensing of algorithm capability for full integration into hand-held detector and portal screening systems.

12.1-002
Embedding of Advanced Search Technique for Detect, Locate, and Track for Pedestrian-based Search

HSHQDC-13-C-00046 DNDOSBIR12-02-FP-002-PSPT-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Integration of Inertial Measurement Data for Improved Localization and Tracking of Radiation Sources

Passport Systems, Inc
70 Treble Cove Road
North Billerica, MA 01862-2208

08/26/2013
to
04/30/2015
$791,362.58

abstractAlgorithms to extract relative positioning from IMU data will be developed and implemented, and existing advanced Bayesian inference algorithms will be updated to utilize relative position data. The goal of the Phase II program is to provide fully integrated and tested pre-production radiation detectors with the improved search capability for further evaluation and CONOPs development. These pre-production devices will demonstrate the commercial viability of the enhanced search algorithms within a networked system of commercial radiation detectors.

12.1-004
Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Modules for Room-Temperature Gamma Radiation Detection

HSHQDC-13-C-00082 DNDOSBIR12-01-FP-004-CAPE-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Defect Engineering of Thallium Bromide (TlBr) for Room Temperature Gamma Radiation Detection

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Suite 1B
Natick, MA 01760-1325

08/12/2013
to
08/11/2015
$992,258.57

TlBr is a promising gamma radiation semiconductor detector material primarily due to its high Z component and high density. TlBr detectors, however, suffer from polarization at room temperature and degrade rapidly under applied bias. Polarization is associated with ionic conductivity in this material. This proposal is focused on controlling the point, chemical, and crystalline defects in TlBr to minimize ionic conduction, and thereby enable operation of this promising detector at room temperature.

12.1-004
Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Modules for Room-Temperature Gamma Radiation Detection

HSHQDC-13-C-00070 DNDOSBIR12-04-FP-001-RMD-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
TlBr Spectrometers with Improved Long-Term Stability at Room Temperature

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

08/13/2013
to
08/12/2015
$999,929.52

The ideal semiconductor detector for the nuclear non-proliferation application should have good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, easy portability, low power requirements and low cost. In the proposed effort, we plan to continue our development of thallium bromide (TlBr), a wide band gap semiconductor that recently has shown great promise as a gamma-ray detector material. In addition to high density (7.5 g/cm3), high atomic number constituents (81, 35) and wide band gap (2.68 eV) the material melts congruently at a modest temperature (480 'C) and does not undergo a phase change as the crystal cools to room temperature, which allows use of melt-based crystal growth approaches to produce large volume TlBr crystals. The cubic crystal structure of TlBr also simplifies crystal growth and device processing. As a result of recent progress in purification, crystal growth and processing, TlBr detectors with mobility-lifetime products of mid 10-3 cm2/V for electrons and mid 10-4 cm2/V for holes has been achieved. This has enabled the development of TlBr gamma-ray spectrometers with thickness exceeding 1 cm. TlBr detectors fabricated in our lab have exhibited < 1 % energy resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV with cooling and depth correction. To date, to obtain excellent long term performance of thick TlBr detector arrays, modest cooling (to ~ - 20 C) has been required. We have demonstrated stable TlBr detector performance exceeding 9 months with the detector continuously biased and operated at ? 18 'C. This level of cooling is easily achieved with a thermoelectric cooler. Cooling however, does increase the power budget of a detector system. In addition to cooling as a method to obtain long term TlBr detector stability, research at RMD and elsewhere has shown that surface processing, electrode materials and thermal annealing significantly influence the long term stability of TlBr detectors operated at room temperature. During Phase I RMD has demonstrated 5 mm thick TlBr detectors with long term stability exceeding 90 days at room temperature. It is our goal in Phase II to further investigate the effects of surface processing, electrodes and annealing on long term stability of TlBr detectors operated at room temperature. In addition, doping will be investigated as a method for modifying ionic conductivity. Dr. Harry Tuller's group at the materials science department of MIT will collaborate with RMD on this aspect of the project. Ultimately our goal is to develop TlBr spectrometers that are stable for more than 1 year at room temperature. Such an efficient, high resolution detector will find applications in nuclear monitoring areas such as nuclear treaty verification, safeguards, environmental monitoring, nuclear waste cleanup, and border security. Nuclear and particle physics as well as astrophysics are other fields of science were gamma-ray spectrometers are used. The developed detectors should have the following advantages: - Efficient detection of gamma-rays (better than CZT per unit volume) - Energy resolution < 1% (FWHM) at 662 keV at room temperature - Lower cost than CZT-based system due to lower cost crystal growth

12.1-005
Near-Room Temperature, Low-Cooling-Power Operation of a Large-Volume Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Detector

HSHQDC-13-C-00068 DNDOSBIR12-05-FP-001-RMD-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
High Efficiency TlBr Gamma-Ray Detector Module

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

08/09/2013
to
07/31/2015
$999,807.89

The ideal semiconductor detector for nuclear monitoring should have good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, easy portability and low cost. In the proposed effort, we plan to develop a detector module for nuclear monitoring based on thallium bromide (TlBr), a wide band gap semiconductor that recently has shown great promise as a gamma-ray detector material. TlBr has a number of very promising properties. It has high density (7.5 g/cm3) and high atomic number constituents (81, 35), which promises high sensitivity. The electrical resistivity of the material is high (>1010 -cm) without deep level doping. Furthermore, the material melts congruently at a modest temperature (480 'C) and does not undergo a phase change as the crystal cools to room temperature, which allows use of melt-based crystal growth approaches such as Bridgman and Czochralski to produce large volume TlBr crystals. The cubic crystal structure of TlBr also simplifies crystal growth and device processing. As a result of recent progress in purification, crystal growth and processing, TlBr detectors with mobility-lifetime (u) products of mid 10-3 cm2/V for electrons and mid 10-4 cm2/V for holes has been achieved. This has enabled the development of TlBr gamma-ray spectrometers with thickness exceeding 1 cm. In fact, TlBr detectors fabricated at RMD have exhibited < 1 % energy resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV upon depth correction. These detectors were cooled to -20'C to achieve stable operation. The goal of this Phase II project is to build a cooled, compact TlBr gamma-ray detector module using the 3-dimensional position-sensitive readout technology pioneered by the group at the University of Michigan. The key advancement is to develop a lower power charge sensing ASIC that can digitally sample the outputs of an array of preamplifiers. By sampling the preamplifier outputs, the induced charges on the detector electrodes can be obtained as a function of time, so that digital signal processing can be used to perform gamma-ray spectroscopy, to determine the depth of interaction of individual gamma-ray energy depositions, as well as to measure charge drift time, electric field distribution within TlBr and lifetimes of electrons and holes. The digital ASIC readout system will enable both fundamental research on TlBr detectors and practical operation to perform gamma-ray imaging and spectroscopy outside the laboratory. Since TlBr detectors can operate in a stable manner at 20C, power consumption of the digital ASIC system should be minimized so that the system can be cooled to required temperature using Peltier coolers. Such an efficient, high resolution, 3-D position sensitive detector module will find application in nuclear monitoring areas such as nuclear treaty verification, safeguards, environmental monitoring, nuclear waste cleanup, and border security. Nuclear and particle physics as well as astrophysics are other fields of science were gamma-ray spectrometers are used. The developed detectors should have the following advantages: - Efficient detection of gamma-rays (better than CZT per unit volume) - Energy resolution < 1% (FWHM) at 662 keV - Lower cost than CZT-based system due to lower cost crystal growth

H-SB014.1-006
Smartphone or Tablet Controlled Devices for Radiation Detection, Identification, Classification and Quantification

HSHQDC-15-C-00033 HSHQDC-14-R-00005-H-SB014.1-006-0001-II
(HSHQDC-14-R-00005 Phase II)
Smartphone Enabled Spectroscopic Gamma-Neutron Radiation Sensor

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

04/22/2015
to
04/21/2016
$500,008.71

RMD is proposing the development of a Smart-phone Enabled Radionuclide Identifier (SERI), a new detection instrument designed to take full advantage of the smartphone/tablet technology. The hardware platform will include a new advanced scintillator that will provide both high gamma-ray efficiency and spectroscopic performance, in addition to providing high neutron efficiency. The unit will communicate wirelessly to a smartphone/tablet, which will provide a graphical user interface, an isotope ID and a reach-back functionality. The early stage research is to optimally design the hardware components while moderating cost, instrument size and power consumption. Additionally, the software architecture of the accompanying 'app' will be designed along with the evaluation of key algorithms needed to identify radionuclides. The final product will be an instrument primarily geared to first responders. It will be compact, easily transportable and wearable, battery operable and rugged. Furthermore, with the novel detector design, SERI will provide a completely new level of performance.

H-SB015.1-009
Stable Semiconductor Modules as Core Component in Pager Radiation Detectors

HSHQDC-16-C-00044 HSHQDC-15-R-00017-H-SB015.1-009-0004-II
(HSHQDC-15-R-00017 Phase II)
TlBr Detectors for Radiation Pagers

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

04/01/2016
to
03/31/2018
$999,993.22

RMD is proposing to construct a compact detector module for radiation pager applications utilizing a TlBr semiconductor device as the radiation sensitive element. Due to its excellent energy resolution, detection efficiency and low cost crystal growth method, a TlBr-based pager should greatly expand the capabilities and availability of these instruments. Various detector designs were evaluated during Phase I, using sensitivity and energy resolution as key differentiators. With a basic design now selected, RMD will start Phase II by refining design details and fabrication procedures, all with the goal of achieving a robust detector technology. The ANSI N42.32 standard will be met and further potential will be demonstrated towards meeting future radioisotopic identification needs. By program end, RMD will construct a prototype pager that highlights the technology. In its completed state, the TlBr technology will provide a new level of performance to the Nation's capabilities in monitoring the flow of radioactive materials within its borders. Other potential commercial applications include nuclear medicine, space and geological sciences and industrial non-destructive testing.

H-SB015.1-009
Stable Semiconductor Modules as Core Component in Pager Radiation Detectors

HSHQDC-16-C-00041 HSHQDC-15-R-00017-H-SB015.1-009-0006-II
(HSHQDC-15-R-00017 Phase II)
Semiconductor Neutron Detector

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

04/01/2016
to
04/30/2018
$999,875.24

We propose to develop a thermal neutron detection module based on LiInSe2 semiconductor material as an alternative to He-3 detectors. While recent depletion of He-3 gas is the main driving force behind development of He-3 replacements, other issues with He-3 tubes such as a pressurized vessel used and microphonic issues are also important factors in handheld and portable detectors. LiInSe2 offers (1) efficient thermal neutron detection (significantly higher per-volume than 3H); (2) direct conversion of the neutrons to electrical signal, which is an advantage compared to the alternative solution based on scintillators with neutron detection capabilities; and (3) good separation between gamma and neutron particles utilizing simple pulse height discrimination. The final goal is to develop a LiInSe2 detection module and integrate it into a compact handheld instrument. The technical objectives of Phase II is to advance the technology based on Phase I investigation and design and develop a neutron detection module and integrated into a neutron handheld instrument.

H-SB015.1-009
Stable Semiconductor Modules as Core Component in Pager Radiation Detectors

HSHQDC-16-C-00032 HSHQDC-15-R-00017-H-SB015.1-009-0010-II
(HSHQDC-15-R-00017 Phase II)
Stable Tl-based Semiconductor Modules for Radiation Detection

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Natick, MA 01760-1325

04/01/2016
to
03/31/2017
$998,500.00

Thallium-Bromide is a promising semiconductor material for detection of gamma rays, primarily due its high atomic number, high electrical resistivity, and optimum bandgap energy. This program focuses on development of TlBr radiation detector modules for room temperature applications and demonstration of two types of Personal Radiation Detection (PRD) systems based on TlBr modules. A number of ANSI N42.32 compliant PRDs will be supplied to the government at the end of the program for evaluation.

H-SB016.1-011
Smartphone/Smart device Toolkit for Virtual and Actual Radiation Detection, Identification, and Localization

HSHQDN-17-C-00010 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-011-0004-II
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase II)
Virtual Source Training Toolkit

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

09/22/2017
to
09/21/2019
$999,992.54

H-SB016.1-012
Plastic Composite Based Scintillators for Multi-Signature Radiation Detectors

HSHQDN-17-C-00005 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-012-0008-II
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase II)
Multi-Signature Composite Detector

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

09/25/2017
to
09/24/2018
$999,911.71

H-SB016.1-012
Plastic Composite Based Scintillators for Multi-Signature Radiation Detectors

HSHQDN-17-C-00008 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-012-0010-II
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase II)
Large Volume Composite Scintillators

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Natick, MA 01760-1325

09/22/2017
to
09/21/2019
$1,010,000.00

H-SB017.1-009
Unattended Radiation Detection System

70RDND18C00000027 HSHQDC-17-R-00010-H-SB017.1-009-0002-II
(HSHQDC-17-R-00010 Phase II)
PCS-Enabled Unattended Radiation Detection and Attribution System

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

09/21/2018
to
09/20/2020
$999,882.47

Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a PCS-Enabled Unattended Radiation Detection and Attribution System (PURDAS) that will be able to detect, identify, and attribute radiological sources to specific source carriers or conveyances. The PURDAS will include a COTS gamma and neutron detection capability as well as a visible camera, onboard processing, and wireless radios. PURDAS units will be able to wirelessly connect to each other to create a distributed sensor network and enable full 3D localization of sources and tracked conveyances. Source detection and identification will be performed by the Poisson Clutter Split (PCS) algorithm that increases detection sensitivity by a factor of 2-3 over current commercial detection algorithms and provides real-time isotope identification. Source localization will be performed by an optimized PCS-based approach developed for the DARPA SIGMA program. New advanced algorithms will be developed to detect and classify objects from the camera imagery and perform data fusion to attribute sources to individual conveyances. This capability will reduce the manpower requirements of continuous wide area search while maintaining the ability to rapidly interdict threats. PURDAS communications will be compatible with the SIGMA framework.

H-SB018.1-010
Exploitation of Security Networks and Video Management Systems for Nuclear Threat Identification and Tracking

70RWMD19C00000001 FY18.1-H-SB018.1-010-0001-II
(FY18.1 Phase II)
Tracking Nuclear Threats in Security Camera Networks (TNT-SCAN)

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138-4555

08/12/2019
to
08/11/2021
$1,009,985.78

Implementing continuous nuclear and radiological monitoring systems that support automatic detection and tracking of potential nuclear threats is traditionally associated with a high operational burden. Sensors are typically monitored by dedicated personnel, who must investigate detection events in a timely manner. High nuisance alarm rates can rapidly overwhelm already taxed law enforcement personnel, and ambiguities in a signal's origin limit the reliability of actionable information, particularly in a cluttered urban environment with many moving objects. Charles River Analytics and Passport Systems propose to develop a system for Tracking Nuclear Threats in Security Camera Networks (TNT-SCAN) that enables continuous, real-time monitoring of radiological sources in complex urban environments. The system augments an existing network of video cameras with a distributed network of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radiation detectors. A video processing subsystem detects and tracks objects in video streams provided by a third-party video management system (VMS) and passes track data to a radiation processing subsystem, which detects, localizes, and identifies threat sources. A graphical user interface provides security personnel with interactive threat reports that include historical track data, enabling efficient review, verification, and escalation of detection events. The proposed system builds on multiple recent advances in video analytics and radiation detection technologies, including a multi-modal approach to monitoring that has been demonstrated in complex, mixed-traffic environments. The envisioned end product represents a natural extension of existing product lines developed by our team, and is expected to appeal strongly to stakeholders of relevant security systems.