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Awards

Topic Information Award/Contract Number Proposal Information Company Performance
Period
Award/Contract
Value
Abstract

08.1-2
Fast, Solid-State, Prompt Neutron Detectors Capable of Operating in Non-Invasive Interrogation Environments

HSHQDC-09-C-00092 SBIR-08-1-TA2-RMD1-II
(HSHQDC-08-R-00066 Phase II)
CVD Diamond Neutron Detectors with Pulse Shape Discrimination

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

08/03/2009
to
08/02/2010
$499,799.63

Proliferation of nuclear weapons is a serious threat in the world today. One way to determine the presence of nuclear weapons is to detect neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) such as highly enriched uranium and weapons grade plutonium. The purpose of this project is to develop improved solid state neutron detectors from CVD diamond for homeland security applications. During Phase II we will focus on optimizing electronic properties of CVD diamond films for neutron detection, increasing the neutron detection efficiency by scaling up the film thickness and area and developing a CVD diamond-based portable instrument for neutron detection. Diamond has a high cross-section for fission neutron scattering and low sensitivity to gamma rays. Diamond also has a wide band gap for low noise, room temperature operation, high electron and hole mobility for fast response, and high displacement energy for high radiation hardness. Commercial applications include homeland security, nuclear and high-energy physics research, and medical dosimetry.

10.1-2
Neutron detectors including replacement for He-3

HSHQDC-11-C-00061 HSHQDC-10-R-00030-1011009-II
(HSHQDC-10-R-00030 Phase II)
New Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials for Neutron Detection

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

07/06/2011
to
07/05/2013
$999,998.00

In the proposed program, we plan to investigate novel semiconductor neutron detectors based on the wide bandgap lithium containing compositions LiGaSe2, LiGaTe2, LiInS2, and LiInSe2. The goal of the program is to produce detector quality crystals and to demonstrate efficient thermal neutron detection, with the possibility of providing neutron gamma discrimination. We will examine the synthesis and purification of high quality starting materials and the growth of single crystals. We will evaluate the electronic, charge transport, and detection response characteristics of the materials that are produced. Thermal neutron detection studies and neutron gamma discrimination will be investigated. A compact low cost solid state thermal neutron detection system based on any of these materials would be a major breakthrough over conventional thermal neutron detectors, such as 3He tubes, which are currently in short supply. This development would open up many potential commercial applications for systems based on these detectors. Beyond nuclear non-proliferation monitoring, neutron detection has important applications in several areas, including nuclear physics, oil exploration, materials characterization, biological research, nuclear waste characterization, health physics, and non destructive evaluation.

10.1-2
Neutron detectors including replacement for He-3

HSHQDC-11-C-00033 HSHQDC-10-R-00030-1011012-II
(HSHQDC-10-R-00030 Phase II)
New Scintillator for Neutron Detection

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

05/31/2011
to
07/12/2012
$900,000.00

Neutron detection is one of the methods used in revealing illicit nuclear materials. Currently, there is an ongoing search for new and better neutron detectors prompted by anticipated shortages of He-3 that is used in many of the current detection systems. This effort proposes and investigation and development of a new thermal neutron and gamma scintillator. The scintillator belongs to already proven elpasolite crystal family. The main advantages of this material are due to avoidance of Cl (parasitic neutron absorption) and La (introduces radioactive isotopes) ions in the composition. This leads to a scintillator that is more efficient for thermal neutron detection and has lower intrinsic background. The material already showed that it is capable of discrimination between neutrons and gammas, a feature required in detectors to replace He-3 tubes. In addition, like other elpasolite crystals, the material should also provide excellent gamma energy resolution. We expect it to be better than 4 percent at 662 keV, which is almost twice as good as 7 percent for NaI:Tl (the most popular gamma scintillator). Phase I of the project will investigate in detail the properties of this material and provide optimal configuration for obtaining pulse shape discrimination and energy resolution

10.1-2
Neutron detectors including replacement for He-3

HSHQDC-11-C-00084 HSHQDC-10-R-00030-1011046-II
(HSHQDC-10-R-00030 Phase II)
High Performance Portable Neutron Detector

Agiltron, Inc.
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801-1003

08/31/2011
to
12/31/2013
$250,000.00

A Neutron detection device is an indispensable tool for power, medical, and defense applications. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons is a serious threat in today's world. Low cost, low power, high performance, rugged and portable neutron detection devices are highly desirable for these applications. Agiltron proposes an unprecedented fabrication and integration approach to make these solid-state neutron detectors commercially available at low cost for large-scale deployment. The success of this project will lead to the large-scale manufacture of these unmatched next generation neutron detectors.

11.1-001
Development of commercial hand-held and backpack neutron detectors

HSHQDC-12-C-00012 SBIR11-1-SBIR11.1-001-FP-008-II
(HSHQDC-11-R-00087 Phase II)
Hand-held Neutron Detector

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

05/16/2012
to
10/31/2014
$999,994.00

Proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons is a serious threat. Prevention of their spread has reached a state of heightened urgency in recent years. One of the ways to passively determine the presence of nuclear weapons is to detect and identify characteristic signatures of highly enriched uranium and weapons grade plutonium. Neutrons and gamma rays are two signatures of these materials. Gamma ray detection techniques are useful because the presence of gamma rays of specific energies can confirm the presence of a particular isotope. This technique however, has one significant limitation. In the presence of a dense surrounding material such as lead, gamma ray attenuation can be significant. This can mask the gamma ray signatures of these special nuclear materials (SNM). Neutrons, on the other hand, easily penetrate dense and high atomic number materials. For heterogeneous or dense materials such as samples of metals, oxides, and nuclear waste, gamma ray attenuation is too high to permit accurate correction of the measured signal. Under these circumstances, passive assay techniques based on neutron detection are preferable. When detected, neutrons directly indicate the presence of spontaneously fissioning isotopes (plutonium and californium) and induced fissions (uranium). Therefore, neutron detection is an important component of the overall detection techniques used in identifying SNM. In radioisotope identification devices to date, the neutron detection was readily achieved using He-3 tubes. Unfortunately, in recent years the quantity of this gas is becoming limited, therefore, new solutions are required for an efficient detection system that would allow neutron detection with an ability to discriminate gamma ray events from neutron events. Gamma discrimination is critical because gamma rays are common background in neutron detection environment during SNM monitoring. In this project we propose a handheld thermal neutron detector based on a Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillator [Combes, van Loef], which is an ideal candidate for the task [Bessiere, Glodo 08, Glodo 09]. CLYC offers (1) efficient thermal neutron detection (higher per-volume than He-3); (2) excellent separation between gamma and neutron particles (better than 10-6); and (3) gamma-ray energy resolution as good as 4% at 662 keV for dual mode (neutron and gamma) detectors. The last property is very fortunate, since the majority of current handheld thermal neutron detectors include a separate gamma detector. In most cases, in addition to neutron counts the detection system should provide information about the dose rate and / or simple isotope characterization based on four categories ¿ NORM (Natural occurring radiation materials), SNM (Special nuclear materials), Medical and Industrial Radio-nuclides. The good gamma ray energy resolution of CLYC should guarantee an accurate energy compensated dose rate and reliable characterization of gamma ray radiation. In the last couple of years, CLYC manufacturing has progressed and 1 and 2 inch crystals are being routinely grown at RMD for internal and government purposes [Higgins]. Crystals with diameter as large as 3 inch have been grown. Moreover, the CLYC technology is currently being transferred by RMD to a commercial setting (Hilger), where full scale manufacturing of these crystals will take place. The final goal of this effort is to develop a handheld thermal neutron detector utilizing CLYC scintillators. In Phase I of the project we provided strong foundations for achieving this goal. We have shown that CLYC works well with silicon photomultipliers (MPPC from Hamamatsu). A CLYC/MPPC system provides a very compact device due to small size of this light detector.Built detectors showed clear neutron peaks (7% energy resolution), were capable of pulse shape discrimination, and could easily provide dose equivalent information for gamma ray radiation. Such combination works even if the crystal is in a form of a 1 in right cylinder, although pillar type geometry was found to be optimal from the efficiency point of view. Due to their optimal surface to volume ratio, our pillar detectors provided twice as many counts as a high pressure He-3 tube per volume unit. The objective of the Phase II effort is to design and construct prototypes of a compact neutron detector based on the CLYC scintillator. The Phase II work will be based on the Phase I experiments and results. It will focus on developing the detector and instrumentation technology to achieve the project goal of designing and prototyping a compact handheld neutron detector. The main areas of research and development will include (1) detector module optimization, such as detector form factor, light readout, and interface; (2) study of the detector signal shape and PSD performance as a function of the temperature and temperature stabilization of the system; (3) electronic module design and prototype development. Our goal will be to develop and realize a concept that can be expanded into multi-component systems, e.g. backpack implementation. In this project we will collaborate with Dr. Sara Pozzi at the University of Michigan. She will assist with the modeling and optimization of the neutron and gamma ray response of our detectors. The optimization will include detector and moderator dimensions.

11.1-001
Development of commercial hand-held and backpack neutron detectors

HSHQDC-12-C-00021 SBIR11-1-SBIR11.1-001-FP-015-II
(HSHQDC-11-R-00087 Phase II)
Low Dark Current Portable Neutron Detector

Agiltron, Inc.
15 Presidential Way
Woburn, MA 01801-1003

08/06/2012
to
08/05/2014
$369,465.70

A Neutron detection device is an indispensable tool for power, medical, defense, and homeland security applications. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons is a serious threat in today¿s world. Low cost, low power, high performance, rugged and portable neutron detection devices are highly desirable for these applications. Yet, the cost and production volume of the traditional He-3 tube based neutron detector are greatly limited by the availability of the He-3 rare gas. Agiltron proposes an unprecedented fabrication and integration approach to make a boron-10 filled micro-fabricated solid-state neutron detector, which, with performance readily able to replace the He-3 tubes, can be commercially manufactured at low cost for largescale deployment. Our success in Phase I demonstrated the feasibility of key fabrication steps and provided a rationale for carrying out the detector prototype development in Phase II, which will further lead to the large-scale manufacture of these next generation neutron detectors.

11.1-003
Growth & Characterization of New, Promising Advanced Scintillator Materials

HSHQDC-12-C-00016 SBIR11-1-SBIR11.1-003-FP-001-II
(HSHQDC-11-R-00087 Phase II)
Eu2 Doped CSBal3 and CsBa215 Scintillators for Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

05/15/2012
to
06/18/2014
$999,995.00

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear missiles and "dirty bombs" is a serious threat in the world today. Preventing the spread of these nuclear weapons has reached a state of heightened urgency in recent years, more so since the events on September 11, 2001 and its aftermath. Gamma-ray spectrometers are an important tool in monitoring the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Important requirements for the gamma-ray spectrometers used for nuclear non-proliferation include high energy resolution, high detection efficiency, low cost and reasonably fast response. None of the existing gamma-ray detectors satisfy all these requirements. Recently, a new class of Eu2+ doped scintillators based on BaI2-CsI compositions have shown considerable promise in gamma-ray spectroscopy. The goal of the proposed effort is to investigate and advance this promising class of scintillators. Anticipated Benefits New scintillator materials with high light output, excellent proportionality, very high energy resolution and reasonably fast response would offer unique advantages over many of the existing scintillators used in gamma-ray studies. The application addressed in this proposal is nuclear non-proliferation, where the proposed scintillators would offer better isotope identification with fewer false alarms. These scintillators will be useful in other areas too. Clinical SPECT systems and gamma-cameras, surgical probes, small animal imaging systems, and dedicated organ imaging systems would all benefit from the proposed innovation due to possibility of improved scatter rejection and higher spatial resolution. These sensors also have critical applications in other areas. The increased interest and commitment to quality control has motivated many industrial groups to develop gamma-ray based nondestructive testing equipment. High counting rates, wide dynamic range, high sensitivity, and low noise performance are important to minimize the required source strength which must be located on the production floor. This is an area in which the compactness, and flexibility of a high performance detector will have a major impact. Other applications include nuclear physics research, environmental monitoring, nuclear waste clean-up, astronomy and well-logging. References Dr. Stephen Payne, LLNL, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (925) 423-0570, payne3@llnl.gov Dr. Zhong He, U. of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (734) 764- 7130, hezhong@umich.edu Dr. William Moses, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd. Berkeley, CA 94720 (510) 486-4432, WWMoses@lbl.gov

11.1-003
Growth & Characterization of New, Promising Advanced Scintillator Materials

HSHQDC-12-C-00048 SBIR11-1-SBIR11.1-003-FP-006-II
(HSHQDC-11-R-00087 Phase II)
Low -Stress Growth of BaBrI and CsBa2I5 Scintillators

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Sutie 1B
Natick, MA 01760-1325

09/06/2012
to
09/05/2014
$500,000.00

The recent discovery of Eu activated alkali-earth halide scintillators promises to revolutionize remote detection and identification of radioisotopes. This proposal addresses the development of methods for production of large-volume, high-quality CsBa2I5scintillators. High-quality, low-cost scintillators for detection of gamma-rays are needed for monitoring of nuclear non-proliferation and homeland security. The same scintillators can be used to significantly improve the performance and lower the cost of applications involving X-ray detection in nuclear medicine imaging and diagnostics , X-ray detectors for non-destructive testing, and environmental contamination monitoring. The work proposed here promises to result in production of scintillators for government and commercial applications with much higher performance and at much lower cost than currently available

12.1-001
High Purity Precursor Materials for Growth of Large Single Crystals

HSHQDC-13-C-00080 DNDOSBIR12-01-FP-001-CAPE-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Establishment of Scientific and Industrial Base for Production of High Purity Precursor Materials for SrI2: Eu and CLYC

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Suite 1B
Natick, MA 01760-1325

08/12/2013
to
07/31/2015
$998,062.73

Successful growth of novel halide scintillators SrI2:Eu and CLYC depends on a supply of highly pure precursor materials. CapeSym and SAFC have partnered to develop a thorough understanding of the factors that influence purity, and techniques to reduce these impurity levels in SrI2:Eu and CLYC precursors. Novel processing and crystal growth experiments at CapeSym, and materials characterization at SAFC-Hitech will be used to assess the impact of purification techniques. Technologies will be transferred to SAFC-Hitech for implementation into production processes. In parallel we will conduct market research and pricing analysis to better estimate volumes needed to meet DHS requirements. Anticipated benefits include: - increased understanding of binary-halide contamination issues - improved precursor processing techniques - improved scintillator performance - a roadmap for attaining precursor cost reduction.

12.1-002
Embedding of Advanced Search Technique for Detect, Locate, and Track for Pedestrian-based Search

HSHQDC-13-C-00083 DNDOSBIR12-02-FP-001-PSI-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Embedded Search and ID Algorithms for Human Portable Radiation Detectors

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

10/01/2013
to
09/30/2015
$999,785.00

Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop, implement, and test algorithms and hardware to enhance pedestrian search for radioactive threats employing man-portable radiation detectors through the use of advanced search techniques enabled by smartphone technology. The proposed solution will add significant value to the search missions carried out by first responders, customs and border protection officers, or military personnel engaged in pedestrian searches for radiological threats. The algorithms will analyze data from smartphone sensors (e.g. gyroscope, magnetometer, and camera) in conjunction with gamma spectra collected by a medium-resolution detector to determine and communicate to the user estimates of source location. The threat localization approach will be enhanced through the use of spectroscopic detection and identification information generated by advanced algorithms. These algorithms have been demonstrated to significantly improve detection sensitivity while reducing operational false alarms using low integration time spectra. The functionality will provide a complete search capability to the end users resulting in source localization inside a 100 m x 100 m search area within 10 minutes of entry. A nominal 1 mCi 137Cs threat will be localized to within 2 meters after 1-2 minutes from detection. The Phase II program will build upon algorithms supporting a systematic localization methodology developed and tested during the Phase I program. The Phase I system concept will be formulated into detailed software/hardware designs. The search algorithms will be embedded as part of a prototype Smart Hand Held Detector (SHHD) to facilitate the optimization of search methods and to enable testing and evaluation. The Phase II base program will result in a TRL 4 brassboard prototype that will be extensively tested in relevant environments. In Year 2 of the effort, independent testing by third parties will be used as a means to evaluate system performance and to collect user feedback. The feedback will be incorporated in a review of the prototype design and CONOPS, which will be modified as necessary. At the end of the successful program, PSI will demonstrate a TRL 5 capability that achieves the SHHD Threshold Key Performance Parameters. The SHHD will be at a sufficient MRL for low-rate initial production. Sales of the pedestrian search capability will be through value added resellers of detector technology and will be complemented by the licensing of algorithm capability for full integration into hand-held detector and portal screening systems.

12.1-002
Embedding of Advanced Search Technique for Detect, Locate, and Track for Pedestrian-based Search

HSHQDC-13-C-00046 DNDOSBIR12-02-FP-002-PSPT-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Integration of Inertial Measurement Data for Improved Localization and Tracking of Radiation Sources

Passport Systems, Inc
70 Treble Cove Road
North Billerica, MA 01862-2208

08/26/2013
to
04/30/2015
$791,362.58

abstractAlgorithms to extract relative positioning from IMU data will be developed and implemented, and existing advanced Bayesian inference algorithms will be updated to utilize relative position data. The goal of the Phase II program is to provide fully integrated and tested pre-production radiation detectors with the improved search capability for further evaluation and CONOPs development. These pre-production devices will demonstrate the commercial viability of the enhanced search algorithms within a networked system of commercial radiation detectors.

12.1-004
Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Modules for Room-Temperature Gamma Radiation Detection

HSHQDC-13-C-00082 DNDOSBIR12-01-FP-004-CAPE-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Defect Engineering of Thallium Bromide (TlBr) for Room Temperature Gamma Radiation Detection

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Suite 1B
Natick, MA 01760-1325

08/12/2013
to
08/11/2015
$992,258.57

TlBr is a promising gamma radiation semiconductor detector material primarily due to its high Z component and high density. TlBr detectors, however, suffer from polarization at room temperature and degrade rapidly under applied bias. Polarization is associated with ionic conductivity in this material. This proposal is focused on controlling the point, chemical, and crystalline defects in TlBr to minimize ionic conduction, and thereby enable operation of this promising detector at room temperature.

12.1-004
Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Modules for Room-Temperature Gamma Radiation Detection

HSHQDC-13-C-00070 DNDOSBIR12-04-FP-001-RMD-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
TlBr Spectrometers with Improved Long-Term Stability at Room Temperature

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

08/13/2013
to
08/12/2015
$999,929.52

The ideal semiconductor detector for the nuclear non-proliferation application should have good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, easy portability, low power requirements and low cost. In the proposed effort, we plan to continue our development of thallium bromide (TlBr), a wide band gap semiconductor that recently has shown great promise as a gamma-ray detector material. In addition to high density (7.5 g/cm3), high atomic number constituents (81, 35) and wide band gap (2.68 eV) the material melts congruently at a modest temperature (480 'C) and does not undergo a phase change as the crystal cools to room temperature, which allows use of melt-based crystal growth approaches to produce large volume TlBr crystals. The cubic crystal structure of TlBr also simplifies crystal growth and device processing. As a result of recent progress in purification, crystal growth and processing, TlBr detectors with mobility-lifetime products of mid 10-3 cm2/V for electrons and mid 10-4 cm2/V for holes has been achieved. This has enabled the development of TlBr gamma-ray spectrometers with thickness exceeding 1 cm. TlBr detectors fabricated in our lab have exhibited < 1 % energy resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV with cooling and depth correction. To date, to obtain excellent long term performance of thick TlBr detector arrays, modest cooling (to ~ - 20 C) has been required. We have demonstrated stable TlBr detector performance exceeding 9 months with the detector continuously biased and operated at ? 18 'C. This level of cooling is easily achieved with a thermoelectric cooler. Cooling however, does increase the power budget of a detector system. In addition to cooling as a method to obtain long term TlBr detector stability, research at RMD and elsewhere has shown that surface processing, electrode materials and thermal annealing significantly influence the long term stability of TlBr detectors operated at room temperature. During Phase I RMD has demonstrated 5 mm thick TlBr detectors with long term stability exceeding 90 days at room temperature. It is our goal in Phase II to further investigate the effects of surface processing, electrodes and annealing on long term stability of TlBr detectors operated at room temperature. In addition, doping will be investigated as a method for modifying ionic conductivity. Dr. Harry Tuller's group at the materials science department of MIT will collaborate with RMD on this aspect of the project. Ultimately our goal is to develop TlBr spectrometers that are stable for more than 1 year at room temperature. Such an efficient, high resolution detector will find applications in nuclear monitoring areas such as nuclear treaty verification, safeguards, environmental monitoring, nuclear waste cleanup, and border security. Nuclear and particle physics as well as astrophysics are other fields of science were gamma-ray spectrometers are used. The developed detectors should have the following advantages: - Efficient detection of gamma-rays (better than CZT per unit volume) - Energy resolution < 1% (FWHM) at 662 keV at room temperature - Lower cost than CZT-based system due to lower cost crystal growth

12.1-005
Near-Room Temperature, Low-Cooling-Power Operation of a Large-Volume Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Detector

HSHQDC-13-C-00068 DNDOSBIR12-05-FP-001-RMD-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
High Efficiency TlBr Gamma-Ray Detector Module

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

08/09/2013
to
07/31/2015
$999,807.89

The ideal semiconductor detector for nuclear monitoring should have good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, easy portability and low cost. In the proposed effort, we plan to develop a detector module for nuclear monitoring based on thallium bromide (TlBr), a wide band gap semiconductor that recently has shown great promise as a gamma-ray detector material. TlBr has a number of very promising properties. It has high density (7.5 g/cm3) and high atomic number constituents (81, 35), which promises high sensitivity. The electrical resistivity of the material is high (>1010 -cm) without deep level doping. Furthermore, the material melts congruently at a modest temperature (480 'C) and does not undergo a phase change as the crystal cools to room temperature, which allows use of melt-based crystal growth approaches such as Bridgman and Czochralski to produce large volume TlBr crystals. The cubic crystal structure of TlBr also simplifies crystal growth and device processing. As a result of recent progress in purification, crystal growth and processing, TlBr detectors with mobility-lifetime (u) products of mid 10-3 cm2/V for electrons and mid 10-4 cm2/V for holes has been achieved. This has enabled the development of TlBr gamma-ray spectrometers with thickness exceeding 1 cm. In fact, TlBr detectors fabricated at RMD have exhibited < 1 % energy resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV upon depth correction. These detectors were cooled to -20'C to achieve stable operation. The goal of this Phase II project is to build a cooled, compact TlBr gamma-ray detector module using the 3-dimensional position-sensitive readout technology pioneered by the group at the University of Michigan. The key advancement is to develop a lower power charge sensing ASIC that can digitally sample the outputs of an array of preamplifiers. By sampling the preamplifier outputs, the induced charges on the detector electrodes can be obtained as a function of time, so that digital signal processing can be used to perform gamma-ray spectroscopy, to determine the depth of interaction of individual gamma-ray energy depositions, as well as to measure charge drift time, electric field distribution within TlBr and lifetimes of electrons and holes. The digital ASIC readout system will enable both fundamental research on TlBr detectors and practical operation to perform gamma-ray imaging and spectroscopy outside the laboratory. Since TlBr detectors can operate in a stable manner at 20C, power consumption of the digital ASIC system should be minimized so that the system can be cooled to required temperature using Peltier coolers. Such an efficient, high resolution, 3-D position sensitive detector module will find application in nuclear monitoring areas such as nuclear treaty verification, safeguards, environmental monitoring, nuclear waste cleanup, and border security. Nuclear and particle physics as well as astrophysics are other fields of science were gamma-ray spectrometers are used. The developed detectors should have the following advantages: - Efficient detection of gamma-rays (better than CZT per unit volume) - Energy resolution < 1% (FWHM) at 662 keV - Lower cost than CZT-based system due to lower cost crystal growth

H-SB010.1-003
Precision Information Environments

D11PC20109 1012001
(FY10.1 Phase II)
Precision Information Environment for Collaborative Emergency Support (PIECES)

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138-4555

05/18/2011
to
11/17/2013
$749,968.00

Decision makers responding to homeland security incidents must rapidly integrate and manage dynamic, time-sensitive information from many heterogeneous and multimodal information sources. Responders access this information through numerous software applications, all while attempting to collaborate in real-time. Based on the results of our Phase I design effort, we propose to develop and evaluate a Precision Information Environment for Coordinated Emergency Support (PIECES). Four core components characterize our approach. First, we will streamline access to multiple information resources by building PIECES on a software framework that uses emerging DHS data standards to fuse heterogeneous information for presentation through a single access point. Second, we will develop advanced, human-centered, multimodal displays within a fully tailorable environment to support manipulation, understanding, and exploitation of correlated data sources via an integrated view. Third, we will support collaboration between teams of local and distributed responders by providing a work environment that allows teams to share and manipulate data sources in real-time despite significant differences in hardware capability. Fourth, we will leverage existing, in-house technology and other emerging and planned DHS systems to rapidly prototype software components. This will allow us to evaluate PIECES capabilities and demonstrate to relevant stakeholders in regional EOCs.

H-SB010.1-004
Molecular Recognition for Explosives Detection

D11PC20126 1012002
(FY10.1 Phase II)
Magnetically Switchable Explosives Vapor Isolator(1001-687)

Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824-4000

08/05/2011
to
08/20/2013
$749,403.00

The proposed work details a molecular recognition based explosives pre-concentration and sampling system which can be coupled to a wide variety of current and future commercially available sensors. The system works by initially isolating and concentrating specific explosives from a sample stream through a novel, robust and tunable molecular recognition system. The concentrated molecules are released to the sensor in a preprogrammed manner through a novel desorption mechanism that minimally impacts the analyte of interest. The technology is easily adaptable to a broad range of explosive threat materials. Based on the success of our initial proof of concept work, we are proposing to extend the technology to build a working prototype.

H-SB011.1-004
Monolithic, Electronically and Widely Tunable Semiconductor-Based Infrared Laser Sources

D12PC00460 FY11.1-H-SB011.1-004-0003-II
(FY11.1 Phase II)
Monolithic, Electronically and Widely Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser Sources

EOS Photonics, Inc.
30 Spinelli Place
Suite A
Cambridge, MA 02138-1070

07/06/2012
to
10/20/2014
$745,163.89

Eos Photonics, in collaboration with the group of Prof. Loncar at Harvard University, proposes to further develop a novel widely tunable, high power quantum cascade laser source for remote sensing applications. Eos will then transition this revolutionary mid-IR laser into a commercial product that is ideally suited for the standoff detection and identification of threats such as explosives and chemical warfare agents. The tuning mechanism of our source is fully electronic and uses no moving parts, relying instead on the integration of intersubband tuning elements fabricated monolithically with DBR gratings to ensure electrically-controlled wavelength tuning over a wide wavelength range and with excellent mode suppression ratio.

H-SB011.2-002
Improved Wipes for Surface Sampling of Chemical Agents on Porous Materials

D12PC00473 DHS SBIR-2011.2-H-SB011.2-002-0006-II
(DHS SBIR-2011.2 Phase II)
Development of a New Collection Methodology for Low Volatility Chemicals from Porous Surfaces

TIAX LLC
35 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421-3102

09/06/2012
to
09/20/2014
$749,903.00

In this effort, TIAX LLC will complete development of an innovative combination of commercially available materials that will permit the efficient and reproducible extraction, collection, concentration, recovery and analysis of low volatility chemicals from porous surfaces such as concrete, painted wall board, and flooring tiles. This work builds on a successful Phase I program, that demonstrated a proprietary method that collects significantly higher amounts of target compounds when compared to a standard collection method. Those higher comparative yields were up to 50 times greater than the standard method that utilizes gauze wipes with a solvent. The successful development and evaluation of this new surface collection methodology will yield a new SOP for the sampling and analysis of surfaces that have been contaminated by low volatility organic chemicals. After a chemical contamination event, the results obtained from this approach can be used for subsequent legal proceedings and also to verify the effectiveness decontamination procedures on porous surfaces. The fully developed method will have commercial uses in the analysis of low volatility chemicals, and as such a wide market potential for use in both environmental contamination and forensic applications. This Phase II effort will allow this methodology to proceed through a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5 "Component and/or breadboard validation in a relevant environment". If exercised, the proposed two Option Years will then result in a TRL level of 7, "System prototype demonstration in an operational environment".

H-SB012.1-003
Safe Standoff Detection of Bulk Explosives on a Person

HSHQDC-13-C-00025 DHS SBIR-2012.1-H-SB012.1-003-0015-II
(DHS SBIR-2012.1 Phase II)
Portable Imager for Stand-off Detection of Person-Bourne Bulk Military and Homemade Explosives

Polestar Technologies, Inc.
220 Reservoir Street
Suite 3
Needham Heights, MA 02494-3133

05/01/2013
to
01/31/2016
$982,287.00

Title: Portable Imager for Stand-off Detection of Person-borne Bulk Military and Homemade Explosives. The overall goal of this SBIR proposal is to develop a portable system for stand-off detection of concealed explosives. The system will produce images positively identifying the presence of explosives and have the ability to detect and identify different types of military explosives (like TNT, C-4, PETN) and homemade explosives such as TATP and HMTD. The system will process persons entering a federal building from a stand-off distance of 3-5m at a data collection rate sufficient to image moving subjects. The system's power and weight will allow it to be portable so that it can be deployed at any required location inside or outside the building. The proposed imager could be deployed at mass transit locations, national security event checkpoints, controlled-entry checkpoints at the entrance to buildings of national importance or at entrance to largely attended sports and entertainment venues.

H-SB012.1-005
Capability for the Tracking of Any and Every Person within a Security Perimeter

HSHQDC-13-C-00072 DHS SBIR-2012.1-H-SB012.1-005 -0006-II
(DHS SBIR-2012.1 Phase II)
Remote Identification and Tracking of Non-Cooperative Subjects (REMIT-NCS)

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138-4555

09/03/2013
to
09/02/2015
$749,170.97

The ability to reliably track and recognize individuals inside a security perimeter is a critical component of next-generation distributed security systems. While state-of-the-art surveillance systems can reliably track pedestrians in sparse, static environments with minor occlusions and few moving subjects, performance degrades rapidly as scene complexity and crowd density increase. The problem becomes even more difficult when tracking individuals over long time scales, or across cameras with non-overlapping fields of view, a scenario which is unavoidable in most urban environments. Existing systems are also unable to re-acquire individuals who have been previously tracked in a separate location, but for whom recent track data is unavailable. To address these issues, we propose a system for Remote Identification and Tracking of Non-Cooperative Subjects (REMIT-NCS). REMIT-NCS extracts stable, descriptive signatures from tracked individuals in surveillance imagery by reconstructing a tracked individual's anthropometric parameters (shape and pose) and using these to produce higher-order, viewpoint-insensitive signatures from the individual's intrinsic attributes (e.g., physical build and motion characteristics) and extrinsic attributes (i.e., outward appearance). The combined intrinsic and extrinsic signatures are then compared to a database of similarly processed tracks to identify the features most suitable for supporting long-term tracking and re-acquisition. Persons moving from one camera view to another are then re-acquired by the system via the resulting discriminative models, enabling persistent tracking of individuals throughout the facility.

H-SB012.2-003
Objective, Quantitative Image Quality Measurements and Metrics for Screener Imaging Technologies

HSHQDC-13-C-00073 DHS SBIR-2012.2-H-SB012.2-003-0001-II
(DHS SBIR-2012.2 Phase II)
Objective X-ray Image Display Evaluation (OXIDE)

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138-4555

09/03/2013
to
09/02/2015
$749,394.67

Transportation Security Officers (TSOs) are tasked with exploiting X-ray inspection systems to detect potential threats. To ensure efficient operation and the safety of the traveling public, TSOs must maintain a 100% probability of detection (Pd) while minimizing screening time. To achieve these objectives, X-ray inspection systems must operate in accordance with manufacturer specifications, and be calibrated to maximize Pd and reduce screening time. The ASTM X-ray Test Object aims to evaluate image quality (IQ) with respect to Pd to support optimal system calibration. However, the ASTM is fundamentally flawed for several reasons: (1) it is prone to operator bias; (2) it is not directly representative of real-world operation; (3) it does not quantify the relationship between IQ and Pd; and (4) it cannot handle moving objects, and is therefore ineffective for exploring the use of continuously rotating conveyor belts to speed up the screening process. To address these concerns, we designed, developed, and demonstrated a prototype for Objective X-ray Image Display Evaluation (OXIDE). OXIDE uses a predictive approach to assess functional IQ during normal operation, producing a single General Image Score that can cue the operator to potential image degradations. The system leverages our existing object detection and IQ technologies to achieve robust and purely objective IQ evaluation for X-ray screening systems. The Phase I prototype accurately predicts functional IQ on real X-ray imagery that has been randomly degraded, corresponding well to a human's qualitative interpretation of relative image quality, and demonstrating the feasibility of our predictive IQ assessment approach.

H-SB013.2-002
Software Based Roots of Trust for Enhanced Mobile Device Security

D14PC00178 HSHQDC-13-R-00032-H-SB013.2-002-0009-II
(HSHQDC-13-R-00032 Phase II)
Software-based Dynamic Mobile Trusted Module (SW-dMTM)

BlueRISC, Inc.
28 Dana St
Amherst, MA 01002-0000

08/01/2014
to
02/15/2017
$750,000.00

The proposed SW-dMTM mobile security solution is lean and fully-software-based. The goal is to provide the required Roots of Trust (RoTs) and trusted security services via a fully software implementation while maintaining the heightened level of assurance typically only achieved through additional, security-centric hardware. This will be achieved by building a solution that is not only compatible with the Trusted Computing Group's (TCG) MTM mobile device security specification but also by supporting government use cases and providing additional dynamic trust verification. The solution has the following key benefits: (i) a cumulative chain of trust via a secure boot methodology, (ii) dynamic RoTs through the runtime verification and persistence achieved by stealth Trusted Agents, (iii) MTM trusted services and extensions. In addition to trusted services they provide the foundation for both static and dynamic data and application protection and attestation. The Phase I effort was successful in proving feasibility of key components through a proof-of-concept demonstration. The expected result of a Phase II proposal is a prototype that could be piloted by DHS. The TRL at the start of the Phase I effort was 2. This was brought to a level 4 through the completion of a proof-of-concept demonstration during Phase I. The expected TRL upon completion of the Phase II effort is 6. A Phase IIB/Cost Match opportunity would increase the TRL to 8 or 9.

H-SB013.2-005
Commodity Goods Counterfeit Detection

D14PC00160 HSHQDC-13-R-00032-H-SB013.2-005-0007-II
(HSHQDC-13-R-00032 Phase II)
Detection of Counterfeit Commodity Goods

TIAX LLC
35 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421-3102

08/01/2014
to
08/15/2016
$749,977.29

In the Phase I program, TIAX LLC developed a detection methodology that was able to measure significant differences between pairs of counterfeit and authentic products in four different product categories. Establishing the proof-of-concept of this technique creates the potential for a new detection methodology that can be utilized at a port of entry by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to identify shipments of counterfeit goods. The objective of the Phase II program is to further develop and optimize the detection methodology developed in the Phase I program. In the Phase II program, we will develop a prototype detection system and demonstrate it under field conditions in a U.S. port of entry. When fully developed, the methodology will allow for the rapid and accurate screening of closed containers for counterfeit products. It will be designed to work outdoors in a port environment in extreme weather conditions. The TIAX methodology will use instruments that are rugged, mobile and can be operated by personnel with minimal scientific training.

H-SB014.1-006
Smartphone or Tablet Controlled Devices for Radiation Detection, Identification, Classification and Quantification

HSHQDC-15-C-00033 HSHQDC-14-R-00005-H-SB014.1-006-0001-II
(HSHQDC-14-R-00005 Phase II)
Smartphone Enabled Spectroscopic Gamma-Neutron Radiation Sensor

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

04/22/2015
to
04/21/2016
$500,008.71

RMD is proposing the development of a Smart-phone Enabled Radionuclide Identifier (SERI), a new detection instrument designed to take full advantage of the smartphone/tablet technology. The hardware platform will include a new advanced scintillator that will provide both high gamma-ray efficiency and spectroscopic performance, in addition to providing high neutron efficiency. The unit will communicate wirelessly to a smartphone/tablet, which will provide a graphical user interface, an isotope ID and a reach-back functionality. The early stage research is to optimally design the hardware components while moderating cost, instrument size and power consumption. Additionally, the software architecture of the accompanying 'app' will be designed along with the evaluation of key algorithms needed to identify radionuclides. The final product will be an instrument primarily geared to first responders. It will be compact, easily transportable and wearable, battery operable and rugged. Furthermore, with the novel detector design, SERI will provide a completely new level of performance.

H-SB014.2-002
Automatic Detection and Patching of Vulnerabilities in Embedded Systems

D15PC00114 HSHQDC-14-R-00035-H-SB014.2-002-0004-II
(HSHQDC-14-R-00035 Phase II)
Autonomous Detection and Healing of Silent Vulnerabilities

BlueRISC, Inc.
28 Dana St
Amherst, MA 01002-0000

09/09/2015
to
09/23/2017
$749,952.01

BlueRISC's proposed solution provides a fundamentally new approach to enable autonomous detection of exploitation attempts as well as healing of silent vulnerabilities. It follows a hybrid approach consisting of (i) new static silent vulnerability point and associated path pre-characterization concepts, and (ii) the insertion of minimal and low-overhead runtime support enabled by the vulnerability characterization framework to enable validation, detection and healing at runtime. As opposed to other solutions, which rely on an attacker successfully injecting functionality in order to detect, this solution is also able to detect the exploitation of silent vulnerabilities, which leak information without modifying the system. The solution is CPU and operating system agnostic and thus widely applicable. Initial sectors that will be targeted include the critical infrastructure Energy Sector and the Defense Industrial Base Sector.

H-SB014.2-004
Radiant Laser Exposure Monitoring for Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ) Evaluation

D15PC00108 HSHQDC-14-R-00035-H-SB014.2-004-0004-II
(HSHQDC-14-R-00035 Phase II)
Laser Exposure Measurement Device

OPTRA, Inc
461 Boston Street
Topsfield, MA 01983-1290

07/24/2015
to
02/07/2017
$754,785.54

The widespread use and deployment of laser systems in the public domain has led to the need for laser exposure measurement systems that operate over wide spectral range and provide sufficient dynamic range to measure exposure relative to maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits and establish normal hazard zones (NHZ). OPTRA, Inc. proposes a solution based on multiple detector arrays, custom CMOS readout integrated circuitry and diffractive optics to directly measure the laser characteristics and evaluate the exposure with respect to MPE limits established by the ANSI Z136.1 standard and determine NHZ.. In the Phase II R&D effort, OPTRA, Inc. will design, develop, build and test a UV through LWIR laser NHZ measurement system.

H-SB015.1-001
DNA and Latent Fingerprint Collection from Same Sample

HSHQDC-16-C-00043 HSHQDC-15-R-00017-H-SB015.1-001-0005-II
(HSHQDC-15-R-00017 Phase II)
Non-Contact Device for Latent Fingerprint Capture

TIAX LLC
35 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02421-3102

03/18/2016
to
08/03/2018
$749,802.62

TIAX will develop a set of fingerprint treatments (including either chemical or instrumental methods, or a combination of both) that allows accurate collection of latent print images from any of the three main classes of surface (porous, nonporous, and adhesive) without compromising subsequent profiling of DNA that may be present in the print. Treatments identified will be developed into prototype products, validated, and applied to real case work in collaboration with DHS-CBP. Our methodology includes use of a statistically rigorous dose-response method to support claims of non-interference with DNA profiling, as well as an experiment-based rational design process to identify suitable or optimal product formulations and instrument configurations. Independent validation of products and methods will be accomplished through partnership with a DHS laboratory.

H-SB015.1-009
Stable Semiconductor Modules as Core Component in Pager Radiation Detectors

HSHQDC-16-C-00044 HSHQDC-15-R-00017-H-SB015.1-009-0004-II
(HSHQDC-15-R-00017 Phase II)
TlBr Detectors for Radiation Pagers

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

04/01/2016
to
03/31/2018
$999,993.22

RMD is proposing to construct a compact detector module for radiation pager applications utilizing a TlBr semiconductor device as the radiation sensitive element. Due to its excellent energy resolution, detection efficiency and low cost crystal growth method, a TlBr-based pager should greatly expand the capabilities and availability of these instruments. Various detector designs were evaluated during Phase I, using sensitivity and energy resolution as key differentiators. With a basic design now selected, RMD will start Phase II by refining design details and fabrication procedures, all with the goal of achieving a robust detector technology. The ANSI N42.32 standard will be met and further potential will be demonstrated towards meeting future radioisotopic identification needs. By program end, RMD will construct a prototype pager that highlights the technology. In its completed state, the TlBr technology will provide a new level of performance to the Nation's capabilities in monitoring the flow of radioactive materials within its borders. Other potential commercial applications include nuclear medicine, space and geological sciences and industrial non-destructive testing.

H-SB015.1-009
Stable Semiconductor Modules as Core Component in Pager Radiation Detectors

HSHQDC-16-C-00041 HSHQDC-15-R-00017-H-SB015.1-009-0006-II
(HSHQDC-15-R-00017 Phase II)
Semiconductor Neutron Detector

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

04/01/2016
to
04/30/2018
$999,875.24

We propose to develop a thermal neutron detection module based on LiInSe2 semiconductor material as an alternative to He-3 detectors. While recent depletion of He-3 gas is the main driving force behind development of He-3 replacements, other issues with He-3 tubes such as a pressurized vessel used and microphonic issues are also important factors in handheld and portable detectors. LiInSe2 offers (1) efficient thermal neutron detection (significantly higher per-volume than 3H); (2) direct conversion of the neutrons to electrical signal, which is an advantage compared to the alternative solution based on scintillators with neutron detection capabilities; and (3) good separation between gamma and neutron particles utilizing simple pulse height discrimination. The final goal is to develop a LiInSe2 detection module and integrate it into a compact handheld instrument. The technical objectives of Phase II is to advance the technology based on Phase I investigation and design and develop a neutron detection module and integrated into a neutron handheld instrument.

H-SB015.1-009
Stable Semiconductor Modules as Core Component in Pager Radiation Detectors

HSHQDC-16-C-00032 HSHQDC-15-R-00017-H-SB015.1-009-0010-II
(HSHQDC-15-R-00017 Phase II)
Stable Tl-based Semiconductor Modules for Radiation Detection

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Natick, MA 01760-1325

04/01/2016
to
03/31/2017
$998,500.00

Thallium-Bromide is a promising semiconductor material for detection of gamma rays, primarily due its high atomic number, high electrical resistivity, and optimum bandgap energy. This program focuses on development of TlBr radiation detector modules for room temperature applications and demonstration of two types of Personal Radiation Detection (PRD) systems based on TlBr modules. A number of ANSI N42.32 compliant PRDs will be supplied to the government at the end of the program for evaluation.

H-SB016.1-003
Malware Prediction for Situational Understanding and Preemptive Cyber Defense

HSHQDC-17-C-00008 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-003-0004-II
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase II)
Cyber Attack Prediction for Situational Understanding and Preemptive Cyber Defense

BlueRISC, Inc.
28 Dana St
Amherst, MA 01002-0000

03/17/2017
to
03/16/2019
$750,000.00

BlueRISC's proposed solution provides a fundamentally new approach to predicting the presence of malware in a network based on a novel graph-theoretical framework. Unlike traditional approaches that are reactive, it builds on a predictive capability that is flexible, adaptive, and is not relying on signatures or strict rule based malware definitions. The approach captures system motion as a predictive surrogate for malicious activity. This occurs based a concise graph-based forensics representation of a system's state and associated space-time correlation algorithms which use graph theory.

H-SB016.1-011
Smartphone/Smart device Toolkit for Virtual and Actual Radiation Detection, Identification, and Localization

HSHQDN-17-C-00010 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-011-0004-II
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase II)
Virtual Source Training Toolkit

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

09/22/2017
to
09/21/2019
$999,992.54

H-SB016.1-012
Plastic Composite Based Scintillators for Multi-Signature Radiation Detectors

HSHQDN-17-C-00005 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-012-0008-II
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase II)
Multi-Signature Composite Detector

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

09/25/2017
to
09/24/2018
$999,911.71

H-SB016.1-012
Plastic Composite Based Scintillators for Multi-Signature Radiation Detectors

HSHQDN-17-C-00008 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-012-0010-II
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase II)
Large Volume Composite Scintillators

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Natick, MA 01760-1325

09/22/2017
to
09/21/2019
$1,010,000.00

H-SB017.1-009
Unattended Radiation Detection System

70RDND18C00000027 HSHQDC-17-R-00010-H-SB017.1-009-0002-II
(HSHQDC-17-R-00010 Phase II)
PCS-Enabled Unattended Radiation Detection and Attribution System

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

09/21/2018
to
09/20/2020
$999,882.47

Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a PCS-Enabled Unattended Radiation Detection and Attribution System (PURDAS) that will be able to detect, identify, and attribute radiological sources to specific source carriers or conveyances. The PURDAS will include a COTS gamma and neutron detection capability as well as a visible camera, onboard processing, and wireless radios. PURDAS units will be able to wirelessly connect to each other to create a distributed sensor network and enable full 3D localization of sources and tracked conveyances. Source detection and identification will be performed by the Poisson Clutter Split (PCS) algorithm that increases detection sensitivity by a factor of 2-3 over current commercial detection algorithms and provides real-time isotope identification. Source localization will be performed by an optimized PCS-based approach developed for the DARPA SIGMA program. New advanced algorithms will be developed to detect and classify objects from the camera imagery and perform data fusion to attribute sources to individual conveyances. This capability will reduce the manpower requirements of continuous wide area search while maintaining the ability to rapidly interdict threats. PURDAS communications will be compatible with the SIGMA framework.

H-SB018.1-001
Development of a Wearable Fentanyl Analog Sensor

70RSAT19C00000009 FY18.1-H-SB018.1-001-0015-II
(FY18.1 Phase II)
Rapid Tox-Based Wearable Sensing Badge for Solid Aerosol and Contact Exposure to Fentanils

Nano Terra, Inc.
737 Concord Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02138-1002

04/01/2019
to
03/31/2021
$999,490.86

Clear Scientific, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Nano Terra, proposes to develop a low-cost and wearable detector badge that quickly alerts the user in real time to the presence of solid or aerosolized fentanils with an audible and visual alert. Current commercial opioid detectors are bulky, costly, and cannot be used passively in real time. Clear Scientific will leverage their expertise in ultra-sensitive dosimetric detection of threat agents to advance their highly-sensitive opioid sensor for use in a compact wearable badge. The proposed system will be unobtrusive and inexpensive, while offering the necessary high sensitivity, high selectivity (distinguishes amongst fentanyl analogs and cutting agents), and rapid response time needed for the requirements of law enforcement and first responders. The system will provide a real-time response based on the effective human toxicity of operational environments containing multiple opioid species whose concentration or identity may not be known.

H-SB018.1-010
Exploitation of Security Networks and Video Management Systems for Nuclear Threat Identification and Tracking

70RWMD19C00000001 FY18.1-H-SB018.1-010-0001-II
(FY18.1 Phase II)
Tracking Nuclear Threats in Security Camera Networks (TNT-SCAN)

Charles River Analytics Inc.
625 Mount Auburn Street
Cambridge, MA 02138-4555

08/12/2019
to
08/11/2021
$1,009,985.78

Implementing continuous nuclear and radiological monitoring systems that support automatic detection and tracking of potential nuclear threats is traditionally associated with a high operational burden. Sensors are typically monitored by dedicated personnel, who must investigate detection events in a timely manner. High nuisance alarm rates can rapidly overwhelm already taxed law enforcement personnel, and ambiguities in a signal's origin limit the reliability of actionable information, particularly in a cluttered urban environment with many moving objects. Charles River Analytics and Passport Systems propose to develop a system for Tracking Nuclear Threats in Security Camera Networks (TNT-SCAN) that enables continuous, real-time monitoring of radiological sources in complex urban environments. The system augments an existing network of video cameras with a distributed network of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radiation detectors. A video processing subsystem detects and tracks objects in video streams provided by a third-party video management system (VMS) and passes track data to a radiation processing subsystem, which detects, localizes, and identifies threat sources. A graphical user interface provides security personnel with interactive threat reports that include historical track data, enabling efficient review, verification, and escalation of detection events. The proposed system builds on multiple recent advances in video analytics and radiation detection technologies, including a multi-modal approach to monitoring that has been demonstrated in complex, mixed-traffic environments. The envisioned end product represents a natural extension of existing product lines developed by our team, and is expected to appeal strongly to stakeholders of relevant security systems.

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC050065 0412010
(FY04.1 Phase II)
Rapid Low Vapor Pressure Chemical Detection Using a Hand-held Artificial Nose

CogniScent, Inc.
410 Concord Rd.
Weston, MA 02493-1313

08/29/2005
to
08/28/2007
$749,121.00

The Phase II SBIR research proposed here extends and expands upon the results from our successful Phase I research to develop a hand-held electronic nose capable of rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection and identification of a broad range of low vapor pressure (LVP) compounds. The overall goal of this R&D effort is to optimize detection of LVP compounds by improving system signal-to-noise through carefully evaluated modifications to the various subsystems of the device. We propose to enhance the device by: 1) continued development of sensitive chemical sensors for a range of LVP compounds, 2) deploying these chemical sensor on a novel filament substrate that increases signal amplitude, 3) improving the optoelectronics to efficiently illuminate and interrogate the chemical sensors, 4) improving vapor sampling to effectively present LVP odors to the sensor array, and 5) developing new data processing algorithms to reduce sensor signal variability. These enhancements will be incorporated into a new prototype device that will be thoroughly tested and quantitatively characterized. With inclusion of these improvements, our preliminary data provide strong evidence that this Phase II R&D will lead to at least a 10-fold improvement in sensitivity, forming the basis for a commercially viable device for detecting LVP compounds.

H-SB04.2-005
Innovative Techniques for Concealed Weapons or Explosive Detection at a Distance

NBCHC050158 0422011
(FY04.2 Phase II)
Terahertz Imaging System for Concealed Weapon Detection

Spire Corporation
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730-2396

10/01/2005
to
12/30/2007
$749,798.00

This Phase II Small Business Innovation Research project is aimed at designing, assembling, and demonstrating an entirely new imaging system capable of detecting hidden weapons at standoff distances. Phase I of this program successfully identified critical terahertz atmospheric transmission windows with high precision, defined the best candidate imaging system, and carried out an analysis of this system resulting in detailed system performance predictions. Compact and efficient semiconductor terahertz quantum cascade lasers are currently being developed by several companies (including Spire) and laboratories, and will soon be commercially available. Using these laser sources as illuminators and local oscillators, a small and portable imaging system based on ultra-sensitive, room temperature, coherent heterodyne detection is proposed. Terahertz radiation, with its submillimeter wavelengths, is non-ionizing and low in energy, avoiding environmental safety issues. Working with the University of Massachusetts Lowell, Submillimeter Wave Technology Laboratory as a subcontractor, Phase II will involve (a) completion of the imager system design begun during Phase I, (b) assembly of a breadboard imaging system, and (c) demonstration and evaluation of the imaging system under simulated field conditions using representative or surrogate explosives and weapons. Commercialization of the imaging system will be carried out utilizing Spire's Biomedical manufacturing, marketing, and sales resources. The commercial availability of terahertz imaging systems will have a strong impact on homeland defense, military and police surveillance, biomedical technology, agricultural inspection, transportation security, analytical instruments, and high-resolution spectroscopy. Homeland defense and military applications include detection of hidden weapons and explosives, while biomedical applications include DNA identification and analysis, high resolution spectroscopy for organic material identification, discrimination between normal and cancer cells, and potential identification of other tissue abnormalities. Scientific applications include high-resolution spectroscopy for rapid identification of trace gasses of heavy molecules, including explosives and chemical weapons.

H-SB04.2-006
Improved and Innovative Cooling Garments for Emergency Responders

NBCHC050163 0423006
(FY04.2 Phase II)
Improved Vapor Compression Personal Cooling

Aspen Systems, Inc.
24 St. Martin Drive
Marlborough, MA 01752-3060

10/01/2005
to
09/30/2007
$750,000.00

Aspen Systems proposes to develop a unique state of the art miniature vapor compression cooling system for use by emergency first responders. The program is structured to include investigation and research into realistic user needs as part of the product definition activities. Aspen has established relationships with representatives from the various user groups within the first responder communities. Through collaboration with these users we plan to clearly define the user requirements and translate them into engineering of an optimized cooling solution. We will build upon the success of the Phase I program and address issues in the prototype developed in that effort. The final output of this Phase II program will be a personal cooling solution optimized for the first responder and ready for transfer to production.

H-SB05.1-002
IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC GAMMA RAY DETECTORS

NBCHC070018 0512007
(FY05.1 Phase II)
IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC GAMMA RAY DETECTORS

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

02/01/2007
to
01/31/2009
$749,999.00

Spread of the weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons is a serious threat in the world today. Prevention of the spread of radioactive materials and nuclear weapons has reached a state of heightened urgency in recent years, especially since the events of September 11, 2001 and its aftermath. Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in homeland defense and monitoring to check the spread of special nuclear materials (such as highly enriched uranium and weapons grade plutonium) and nuclear weapons. An important challenge in homeland security monitoring is not only to detect hidden radioactive materials but also to distinguish them from routinely used radiopharmaceuticals as well as naturally radioactive materials. The goal of the proposed effort is to investigate promising new scintillators for homeland security applications.

H-SB05.1-005
INNOVATIVE LESS-LETHAL DEVICES FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT

NBCHC070002 0512004
(FY05.1 Phase II)
Untethered Electro-Muscular Disruption Round

Mide Technology Corporation
200 Boston Avenue Suite 1000
Medford, MA 02155-4242

02/27/2007
to
02/26/2009
$953,017.00

Mide is proposing to develop and demonstrate an untethered electro-muscular disruption non-lethal stun round for civil law enforcement officers and the military. The innovative device will provide individual threat control at increased range (15 - 50 meters) over existing weapons and it will be compatible with 12-gauge shotguns. The device combines the proven effectiveness, legal and social acceptability of the current tethered EMD devices with the ease of use, practicality, and extended range of shotgun shells. Utility of the innovation is probably best realized in crowd control situations or riots having high levels of aggression. The major benefits of the innovation is that the untethered round avoids all the problems associated with tethered wires, snagging and breaking of the wires, resistive losses and inaccurate delivery of the barbs. While Phase I established a feasible preliminary design, Phase II will further optimize the design and validate though engineering tests the performance of the round. Real scale round will be fired to ensure accuracy and safety. Additional physiological performance tests will also be performed as needed. If funded, the effort will provide a timely non-lethal round that will help to safe lives and protect our people and security forces.

H-SB05.2-005
METHODS TO DETERMINE STRUCTURAL STABILITY

NBCHC070089 0522010
(FY05.2 Phase II)
Real-Time System for Stand-Off Measurement of Structural Stability

Summit Safety, Inc
94 Jackson Road
#303
Devens, MA 01434-4014

04/24/2007
to
04/23/2009
$749,225.00

This project will utilize a non-contact ultrasonic sensing system previously developed by Summit Safety, and convert it from an engineering tool to a user-friendly system capable of providing real-time measurement of structural stability and advanced warning of pending collapse. The sensor provides high resolution measurements of position, velocity, and acceleration from standoff distances upt to 50 feet. The system incorporates multiple sensors connected by a wireless link to a central display unit. Unlike laser-based systems, the ultrasonic system is capable of operating in dense smoke. Phase 2 will complete the development and testing of the system.

H-SB06.1-002
RELIABLE PEROXIDE-BASED EXPLOSIVES DETECTION WITH LOW FALSE ALARM RATE

NBCHC070140 0612018
(FY06.1 Phase II)
RELIABLE PEROXIDE-BASED EXPLOSIVES DETECTION WITH LOW FALSE ALARM RATE

AGILTRON,INC
15 Cabot Road
Woburn, MA 01801-1003

09/05/2007
to
03/04/2009
$749,941.00

We propose to supply an improved version of our recently demonstrated trace explosive detection technology. This technology is comprised of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sampling chip, a highly efficient air collection design, and a low cost Raman signal detection technique for trace peroxide-based explosive detection. This novel approach overcomes intrinsic limitations of current detection technologies. The proposed approach leverages the leading-edge micro-optical component development and manufacturing technology of Agiltron and extensive experience in nano-material engineering within the research group headed by Prof. Vladimir V. Tsukruk at Georgia Institute of Technology. Our novel sampling chips feature high detection sensitivity, fast data collection (second or subsecond), and reproducibility that are not yet attainable by alternate technologies. The proposed sampling cell will be compatible with current commercial Raman probes as a direct "ADD-ON" module and enable much faster detection speeds, much higher sensitivity, and much shorter collection times than those of the state of the art systems. Agiltron also proposes to design and prototype an extremely low cost (< $2K) SERS explosive sensing system with real-time response and very low false alarm rate (< 1%). In this program, Agiltron will design, build, and commercialize these trace peroxide based explosive sensing systems.

H-SB06.1-003
ENHANCED EXPLOSIVE SAMPLE COLLECTION AND/OR PRECONCENTRATION SYSTEMS

NBCHC070141 0612008
(FY06.1 Phase II)
TRACE DETECTION WAND - SAMPLING AND DETECTING EXPLOSIVES CLOSER TO THE SOURCE

Excellims Corporation
20 Main Street
Acton, MA 01720-3575

09/26/2007
to
03/25/2010
$750,000.00

Recently, trace detection and imaging portal systems have begun to be deployed into airport check points and other high threat facilities, to meet the need for detecting explosives on people. In this project, we propose a sample collection method that is similar to the one used in trace portal systems; however, instead of using large scale air handling systems to release, collect, and transport samples to the detector, we bring the collector and optionally the detector closer to the targeted explosive residues. Just as handheld metal detectors are used to detect weapons on selectees and after walkthrough metal detector alarms, the proposed trace detection wand may be used to resolve alarms generated by the trace portal or imaging systems. In addition, at checkpoints where there is not sufficient space or the necessary throughput for portal systems to be deployed, the trace detection wand can be used with a detector, in place of large and expensive portal systems. The proposed trace detection wand is designed to release particles and vapors from cloth, preconcentrate both particles and vapors in the wand, and then detect them with an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) in a few seconds.

H-SB06.1-005
HUMAN DETECTOR FOR CARGO SHIPPING CONTAINERS

NBCHC070121 0612001
(FY06.1 Phase II)
Microsensor for the Detection of Humans in Cargo Shipping Containers

GINER, INC.
89 Rumford Avenue
Newton, MA 02466-1311

09/14/2007
to
03/13/2010
$749,942.00

Project Summary: This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II project is aimed at developing a wireless microsensor for the detection of humans in cargo shipping containers. During Phase I, feasibility of the proposed microsensor was successfully demonstrated. In Phase II we will conduct detailed studies to refine the performance of the microsensor. The microsensor will be configured for independent operation, yet with sufficient flexibility to be integrated and/or communicate wirelessly with the Advanced Container Security Device (ACSD). Two fieldable prototype microsensors will be made available to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), as well as to sensor manufacturing partners, for independent evaluation of the performance of the microsensor. Anticipated Benefits and Potential Commercial Applications: The microsensor will be an important tool in the hands of law enforcement agencies for the reliable detection of stowaways in cargo shipping containers. A small, reliable, low-power-consuming, long life and inexpensive ($150 for quantities larger than 5000) cargo shipping container monitor could prevent illegal transportation of humans and make our nation safer. In addition, the potential commercial applications for the proposed microsensor could include: - Environmental applications; - Medical applications; - Agricultural and Bio-related processes - Food packaging and - Brewing and Carbonated drink industries.

H-SB06.1-008
BOTNET DETECTION AND MITIGATION

NBCHC070126 0615002
(FY06.1 Phase II)
Botnet Analytics Appliance (BNA)

Milcord LLC
1050 Winter Street Suite 1000
Waltham, MA 02451-1406

08/31/2007
to
09/30/2010
$800,000.00

Recent reports indicate the activity of more than 6,000 botnet C&C servers. 70 million zombies are responsible for 80% of SPAM. Given the exponential growth of the botnet threat, the security of our nation's cyber infrastructure demand automated botnet activity monitoring solutions. In Phase I, Milcord developed a feasibility prototype of a "Bayesian Activity Monitor for Botnet Defense". We developed: indicators for measuring botnet behavior, mechanisms for capturing and analyzing packet content to detect bot commands, blacklist interfaces, and a set of Belief Networks that fuse network indicators, DNS data, and bot commands in order to detect and classify botnet behavior. Our results have in general shown the feasibility of learning and predicting botnet behavior at the network level, and blacklist membership in DNS queries. In Phase II, we propose to develop a full-scale prototype of a Botnet Analytics Appliance (BNA) that leverages botnet intelligence contextual knowledge and integrates with Security Event Management platforms, and transition this technology to commercialize use. The development of our Phase II prototype will not only leverage contextual knowledge obtained from real-time aggregated botnet intelligence data and cybersecurity infrastructures but also contribute to the botnet community knowledge base enhancing DHS cyber security mission.

H-SB06.2-007
HIGH QUANTUM EFFICIENCY FAST DETECTORS FOR THE READOUT OF SCINTILLATORS FOR GAMMA RAY DETECTION

HSHQDC08C00057 0622007
(FY06.2 Phase II)
High Quantum Effiency, Fast Detectors for the Readout of Scintillators for Gamma-Ray Detection

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

06/02/2008
to
06/01/2009
$993,316.00

Gamma-ray spectrometers consisting of inorganic scintillators coupled to optical detectors such as photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are an important element of the systems that are used to monitor and prevent the spread of special nuclear materials. Two very important requirements for the scintillation detectors used as gamma-ray spectrometers in homeland security monitoring include high sensitivity and high energy resolution. New, bright scintillators such as cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr-3:Ce) exhibit high energy resolution. The energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce with PMT readout is at present limited by photoelectron statistics. The quantum efficiency of even the best PMTs over the emission spectrum of LaBr3:Ce (340-450 nm region) is quite low (about 30-40%). The low PMT quantum efficiency is one of the main factors that limits the energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce scintillators at present. As a result, the goal of the proposed project is to design, build and evaluate advanced, silicon based photodetectors that have very high quantum efficiency for scintillator readout and are also fast and compact.

H-SB07.1-001
Trace Explosives Particle and Vapor Sample Collection

NBCHC080100 0714011
(FY07.1 Phase II)
Handheld Trace Explosives Sampler

Implant Sciences Corporation
107 Audubon Road #5
Wakefield, MA 01880-1246

09/16/2008
to
06/15/2010
$750,000.00

Non contact trace explosives detection has not been comparable to results obtained from wipe sampling. Many issues, including finding a method to release particles from a surface, efficient particle and vapor transport, and limited particle and vapor trap collection efficiency have all limited the process. Other related issues have included cost of ownership, ease of contamination removal, and compatibility with existing detection equipment. This Phase II proposal summarizes work performed on a Phase I SBIR program to develop solutions for these problems. The methods used in the final prototype hand sampler include aerosol ablation for particle release, a vortex attractor for particle and vapor transport, and a planar stainless steel mesh with optional coating for particle and vapor collection.

H-SB07.1-003
Secure Wrap

D09PC75587 (formerly NBCHC090022) 0714012
(FY07.1 Phase II)
Tamper-Resistant Stretch Wrap

Infoscitex Corporation
303 Bear Hill Road
Waltham, MA 02451-1016

02/01/2009
to
12/31/2012
$795,681.00

The selected approach has been devised with the objective of fabricating an anti-tamper stretch wrap material that preserves the essential optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of existing wrap products, while providing a very effective and easily detectable method for tamper detection using low cost materials and processes.

H-SB07.1-009
Improved Solid-State Neutron Detection Devices

HSHQDC-08-C-00190 FY07.1-0711077-II
(FY07.1 Phase II)
Combined Solid-State Neutron Gamma High Efficiency Detector

NOVA Scientific, Inc.
Sturbridge Technology Park 10 Picker Road
Sturbridge, MA 01566-1251

09/30/2008
to
09/29/2009
$492,248.00

NOVA Scientific proposes Phase II development of a solid-state, high-efficiency neutron detection alternative to 3He gas tubes employing neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) containing 10B and/or Gd. This program supports the DNDO development of technologies designed to detect and interdict nuclear weapons or illicit nuclear materials. This solid-state neutron detector would permit operations in wide-ranging environments limited with 3He. The small prototypes resulting from the Phase II effort will be designed and sized to support the Intelligent Personal Radiation Locator (IPRL) hardware. Phase I neutron detection efficiency measurements of > 25 % were rigorously carried out using a 252Cf source. With a surrounding gamma scintillator measuring the instantaneous 478 KeV gamma from the boron-neutron interaction, an electronic coincidence procedure verified a neutron event with high confidence, rejecting spurious counts and interference from gamma photons at a level of 10-4, comparable to the selected 3He tube used as a standard. The objective of Phase II Year 1 is to move the MCP component capability to its projected full potential of 60-75 % detection efficiency for thermalized neutrons from a fast source and develop the surrounding scintillator system configuration to establish a gamma rejection of 10-5 to 10-6. This would effectively match or exceed 3He tube performance. Additionally a high yield, low noise vacuum encapsulation of the MCP and algorithm peak search will be carried out. Year 2 will assemble repetitive prototypes, establish a breadboard electronics power and data package, and carry out an assessment of pre-commercialization readiness for field operations. NOVA Scientific is teaming with several experts for support; St. Gobain Crystals for expertise in high speed scintillators; VPI Engineering for power and readout electronics and packaging; Sensor Sciences for test and characterization support; and American Electro-Optics for vacuum tube encapsulation.

H-SB07.1-009
Improved Solid-State Neutron Detection Devices

HSHQDC-08-C-00169 FY07.1-0711133-II
(FY07.1 Phase II)
Improved Solid-State Neutron Detector

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

09/30/2008
to
09/29/2009
$463,736.00

The use and applications of radiological sources, for power, medical, and defense applications, continuously increases with time. Illicit nuclear materials represent a threat for the safety of the American citizens and the detection and interdiction of a nuclear weapon is a national problem that has not been yet solved. This represents an enormous challenge to current detection methods and monitoring technologies that require improvement to demonstrate accurate radiation identification capabilities. Using neutron signatures represents a promising solution, however, such a detection technique requires capabilities of detecting neutrons, both thermal and energetic neutrons, while rejecting effectively background gamma rays. Rugged and low-power neutron detectors are highly desirable for large-scale deployment. This research develops a neutron detector that has the potential of replacing pressurized 3Hetubes and current solid-state detectors with an ultra-compact detector based on CMOS-SSPM (Solid State Photomultipliers) technology. This technology provides a low-power, portable unit that can be mass-produced and deployed in a wireless network on a large scale. The detector is very fast and, in addition, can provide time and spectroscopy information over a wide energy range, including fast neutrons and is, therefore, capable of identifying threatening incidents in real time. 2. Anticipated benefits/Potential Commercialization The proposed design for neutron detection has a strong potential to replace He-3 tubes, and can also replace current neutron solid-state detectors, which are either sensitive to gamma-rays or cannot have high-scale production to form a deployable technology for a detection network. In addition the proposed technology is fast, can provide energy and time information, and can be easily adapted into compact packages with or without remote readout electronics. The direct application of this project is to contribute to the national effort of protecting the United States against terrorism through DNDO related missions. However, this research as a whole and with its diverse components will have a big impact on many other research fields that are directed toward general public benefit. The proposed technology with its timing resolution of sub-ns and sub-um high-spatial resolution has immediate application in thermal neutron radiography used to probe macromolecular structures in protein crystallography and in investigations of new materials. The double-pulse signature of thermal neutrons interacting with boron-loaded plastic readout by PMT's is being used for which is the NASA discovery mission that will explore two complementary protoplanets, Ceres and Vesta, to provide new information on processes by which the planets formed. Replacing the PMT by CMOS-SSPM for this mission will definitely enhance this research since SSPM detectors are ultra-compact devices, rugged and operate at low voltages, which is very desirable for space missions. Speaking of space, investigation of highenergy neutrons in space necessarily requires a new type of detection material since fast neutron detectors are traditionally made of liquid compounds that are considered hazardous cargo for space flights. The proposed technology can be scaled to few more layers of detector segments to detect fast neutrons. This technique can be also used for neutron detection in nuclear waste management and especially in investigating the amount of fissile materials when enclosed in waste containers. Neutron/gamma discrimination, which is also important for such applications will be tested through two different methods in the Phase I effort. These techniques of thermal neutron capture, and photon detection will have direct implication on neutron capture therapy of cancer. Due to the high-spatial resolution, energy information, the large signal to background ratio and the low cost of CMOS SSPM devices, this technology represents a strong candidate for neutron and even medical imaging such as PET, small animal SPECT imagers, x-ray imaging and biomedical applications that are directed toward the diagnosis and treatment of Cancer, the Alzheimer disease and disease progression studies. Last and not least, high-energy proton accelerator facilities have been constructed for application in various fields of study, such as nuclear physics, material science and radiotherapy. In these facilities, it is very important to monitor doses from neutrons which can penetrate radiation shields and contribute dominantly to the doses of workers and members of the Conventional moderator-based survey instruments, rem-counters, are, however, less sensitive to such high-energy neutron. The proposed effort will boost these studies since the techniques of collecting the scintillation photons and reading them out with CMOS integrated readout circuitry can be applied there as well.

H-SB07.1-009
Improved Solid-State Neutron Detection Devices

HSHQDC-09-C-00129 FY07.1-0711147-II
(FY07.1 Phase II)
New Neutron Detectors with Pulse Shape Discrimination

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

09/30/2008
to
09/29/2009
$499,999.00

Proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons is a serious threat in the world today. Preventing the spread of nuclear weapons has reached a state of heightened urgency in recent years, especially since the events on September 11, 2001 and its aftermath. One way to passively determine the presence of nuclear weapons is to detect and identify characteristic signatures of highly enriched uranium and weapons grade plutonium. Neutrons and gamma rays are two signatures of these materials. Gamma ray detection techniques are useful because the presence of gamma rays of specific energies can confirm the presence of a particular isotope. This technique however, has one significant drawback: In the presence of dense surrounding material such as lead, gamma ray attenuation can be significant. This can mask the gamma signatures of these special nuclear materials (SNM). Neutrons, on the other hand, easily penetrate dense, high atomic number materials compared to r-rays. Under these circumstances, passive assay techniques based on neutron detection can provide valuable information. When detected, neutrons are direct indicator of presence of spontaneously fissioning isotopes (plutonium and californium) and induced fissions (uranium). At present, there is a real need for a compact, efficient detection system that would allow neutron detection with an ability to discriminate gamma events from neutron events. The goal of the proposed effort is to address this need.

H-SB07.2-007
Neutron and Photon Generators for Advanced Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Interrogation and Verification Systems

HSHQDC-09-C-00018 FY07.1-0721038-II
(FY07.2 Phase II)
Proof of Concept Demonstration of a Compact Accelerator

Passport Systems, Inc
70 Treble Cove Road
N Billerica, MA 01862-2208

12/02/2008
to
05/31/2011
$1,250,000.00

Electron accelerators that produce high duty cycle electron beams with beam energies up to 9 MeV are essential for use in practical Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and EZ-3DTM imaging technologies. While isotopic identification of shielded materials is now possible via these technologies, it is still necessary to achieve accelerator portability, compactness and reasonable cost of ownership to make possible the widespread deployment of critical special nuclear material (SNM) interrogation and verification processes. With the availability of new materials, computing power, and components that were unheard of 50 years ago, an advanced compact accelerator design is proposed to provide an affordable, high duty cycle, portable accelerator that would match the requirements of high rate individual photon counting and spectroscopy which allow identification of SNM, other contraband and cargo verification. Proposed herein is an advanced electron accelerator which satisfies these needs and operates at a high duty cycle and high beam current while only occupying a very small spatial profile compared to existing machines (including power supplies). In Phase II, a Proof of Concept prototype will be designed, built and tested. As for Phase III, the commercialization probability for the portable, high duty cycle electron accelerator is high, with widespread interest in security scanning as well as a variety of commercial, non-security related applications.

H-SB08.1-005
Smart Sensor System

HSHQDC09C00085 0812005
(FY08.1 Phase II)
Smart Sensing and Tracking with Video and Mote Sensor Collaboration

intuVision Inc.
10 Tower Office Park
Ste 200
Woburn, MA 01801-2120

07/10/2009
to
04/30/2011
$749,914.00

With growing concerns about the security of our borders and vulnerable entry points video imagery has emerged as a high potential surveillance data source for generating real time situational information. This potential comes with its challenges due to the large volumes of data need to be processed, lack of smart sensors to automatically detect and understand video content, bandwidth limitations to distribute the video to the hands of decision makers to provide actionable intelligence for first responders. Our proposal addresses each of these challenges, including end-to-end system integration with specific attention to deployment and life cycle costs with Smart Sensing and Video Understanding in a sensor web platform: 1.We embed the video content analysis processing into the video sensor with our Smart Video Node to offload processing of video to the sensor edge, 2.We use inexpensive ad hoc netted sensor motes to cue video sensors to collect and process data only when a mote field is triggered based on commanded rules, 3.We use a sensorweb platform to quickly discover sensors that are available, seamlessly integrate and collect data from disparate sensors, perform system leverage, remotely task sensors and receive alerts from multiple sensors.

H-SB09.1-001
Low-Cost and Rapid DNA-based Biometric Device

N10PC20105 0912003
(FY09.1 Phase II)
Customized STR Typing System for Kinship Analysis

NetBio, Inc.
830 Winter Street
Waltham, MA 02451-1477

04/21/2010
to
04/20/2012
$750,000.00

First described in the early 1990`s, short tandem repeat (STR) analysis is the gold standard of human identification. With a false identification rate as low as one in hundreds of trillions, STR analysis is a powerful tool for determining human identification objectively. The goal of this work is to improve the ability to evaluate kinship based on STR analyses. By creating an STR assay system that allows more accurate determination of kinship, DHS responsibilities such as granting asylum, processing applications for relatives to come to the US, and deterring child trafficking and illegal adoptions can be enhanced significantly. Current STR assays are highly effective for determining the likelihood of first degree relationships (parent-child and sibling-sibling) but are less effective at more distant relationships. By increasing the number of STR loci tested in a given assay, more distant relationships can be determined. The proposed work would result in such an improved assay, building on NetBio`s experience in designing systems that rapidly process nucleic acids without human intervention. It is hoped that this technology will improve the safety of society in general, and protect some of the most vulnerable members of our society in particular.

H-SB09.1-003
Non Antibody-Based, Selective and Rapid Protein Analysis for Detection of Viruses and Bacteria in Environmental Samples

N10PC20052 0912005
(FY09.1 Phase II)
Generation of Bivalent Aptamers with High Affinity and Selectivity of Viruses and Bacteria from Environmental Samples

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

04/22/2010
to
04/21/2012
$749,945.00

Better methodologies for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria and viruses are needed. A particular problem with current antibody-based assays is cross-reactivity with similar, but harmless, species. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. proposes developing nucleic acid-based affinity reagents (aptamers) against botulinum neurotoxin, as well as against a model pathogenic virus (VSV) and spore (Bacillus subtilis). Aptamers displaying fast binding rates (kon) will be selected to increase the speed of the assay. A novel approach using bivalent, bispecific aptamers will be utilized to achieve binding affinities at least equal to that of typical antibodies. The aptamer selectivity will be enhanced by employing counterselection procedures whereby aptamers binding related species are deselected. Finally, the aptamers will be applied to an ELISA-like protocol and their performance directly compared to antibodies. Anticipated Benefits/Commercial Application A more rapid, sensitive, and selective assay for the detection of bacteria and viruses will have widespread applications in homeland security, the military, healthcare, and food safety. The assay could be used to screen ports of entry, public places of interest, and military sites for evidence of biological threat agents. Likewise, the assay could be used in a laboratory or clinical setting to rapidly diagnose infectious diseases.

H-SB09.1-007
Autonomous (or alternative) In-Liquid Survey Vehicle

N10PC20213 0914010
(FY09.1 Phase II)
BIOSwimmer: In-Liquid Inspection System

Boston Engineering Corporation
411 Waverley Oaks Road
Suite 114
Waltham, MA 02452-8414

08/02/2010
to
08/02/2015
$1,707,902.98

This project addresses a critical need in the nation`s infrastructure and border protection, inspection inside tanks on large ships in port. These missions must be performed in a timely, effective, and safe manner in challenging environments. The BIOSwimmer system is an end-to-end solution that includes sensing, post processing, control, and a biomimetic autonomous swimming vehicle that provides efficiency, maneuverability and payload integration capability largely unavailable in other platforms. This PH II includes development of advanced sensing to perform in-liquid inspections with accuracy and reliability as well as design and prototyping in support of a Phase II vehicle build and demonstration. Additional work includes developing support equipment and testing them in realistic situations. The team will work hand in hand with end users, DHS, and actual tanker owners to provide an appropriate solution. A full specification effort is followed by the creation of a system specification for review with end users. Testing efforts provide confidence in the resulting product`s reliability, safety and ability to be certified and approved for use in the field. PH II provides a feasible, cost effective solution with a direct path towards commercialization and insertion into several relevant markets. Commercialization is a major focus of PH II.

H-SB09.2-001
Mobile General Aviation (GA) Aircraft Screener

D11PC20001 0922010
(FY09.2 Phase II)
AS&E Phase II Aircraft Scanner

American Science and Engineering, Inc.
829 Middlesex Turnpike
Billerica, MA 01821-3907

12/10/2010
to
03/09/2012
$750,000.00

In this Phase II effort, American Science & Engineering, Inc. (AS&E) will design, fabricate, test and deliver a mobile X-ray Backscatter one-sided imaging system suitable for examining general aviation aircraft for the presence of weapons, contraband or other proscribed items. The system employs a high resolution X-ray Backscatter imaging module mounted on an omni-directional host platform, providing exceptional motion control and versatility for imaging key points on general aviation aircraft, including engines, wings, fuselage, and empennage. The system incorporates collision avoidance to prevent any inadvertent contact with the object being scanned. Real time imagery is displayed to the operator, who controls the system from a co-located graphical user interface. The operator can manipulate and analyze the resulting images using the included software toolkit. The aircraft scanner can be easily moved from location to location within the airport using its own power, or it can be loaded onto a standard flatbed transport for more distant relocations. The system is safe for the operator, the item scanned and the surrounding area. A prototype system, training, manuals and support will be provided within the twelve month program.

H-SB09.2-002
Human-Animal Discrimination Capability for Unattended Ground Sensors

D11PC20039 0922002
(FY09.2 Phase II)
DiamondBack: Sensor Fusion and Feature-Based Human/Animal Classification for UGS

Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562

11/14/2010
to
11/13/2012
$749,999.00

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) needs a low cost reliable automated system to detect illegal border crossings. Current seismic UGS systems use cadence-based intrusion detection algorithms and are easily confused between humans and animals. The ensuing false alarms reduce the trustworthiness of the system and lead to unnecessary actions which may be costly. Scientific Systems Company Inc. (SSCI) through its Phase I research has developed and tested novel signal processing and classification algorithms to robustly discriminate between humans, animals and vehicles. SSCI identified that foot contact characteristics have a significant impact on the time-frequency characterization of recorded seismic signals. SCCI is teaming with Crane Wireless Systems (Crane WMS) and Applied Research Associates (ARA) for the Phase II work. SSCI will provide the signal processing and classification expertise, and Crane Wireless Monitoring Solutions and Applied Research Associates, both leading provides of Seismic Unattended Ground Sensors, will provide the hardware platform and systems support for porting the classification algorithms onto the UGS sensors. The UGS sensors will be field tested with input from the DHS for performance evaluation. SSCI intends to transition and commercialize the UGS technology using licensing arrangements for the signal processing, classification and power management algorithms.