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Awards

Topic Information Award/Contract Number Proposal Information Company Performance
Period
Award/Contract
Value
Abstract

H-SB010.1-002
Rare Variant Detection Using Next Generation Sequencing Technology

N10PC20199 1011114
(FY10.1 Phase I)
Utility of Next Generation Sequencing Data for Rare Variant Detection and Identification in a Bacterial Sample

Eureka Genomics
750 Alfred Nobel Drive, #108
hercules, CA 94547-1387

05/17/2010
to
11/30/2010
$100,000.00

The long-term objective is to develop a statistically sound rare variant (SNPs) detection and SNP profile comparison method, based on high throughput sequencing (HTS) and advanced bioinformatics, that is capable of detecting a mutations present in as low as 1/5000 bacterial cells in the sample. This will be accomplished in five tasks: (1) Develop and test a statistical model to predict sample coverage required to detect SNPs in a strain of given rarity with pre-specified level of confidence. (2) Determine the ability to use HTS reads to assign SNPs to correct rare variants (3) Quantify the effect of limitations of the sequencing platform on rare variant detection (4) Develop a statistical framework to compare SNP profiles, (5) Develop a research plan for phase II. Rare variant detection and matching will be important for prosecution of bioterrorism attacks or attempts. The commercial opportunity of the forensic application is unknown, but commercial applications in clinical diagnostics associated with the detection of drug resistant variants are extensive. There is an urgent need (estimated 100M USD US market annually) for a diagnostic test to identify the presence of multi- or extensively- drug resistant tuberculosis present in 1 percent or less of the sample.

H-SB010.1-004
Molecular Recognition for Explosives Detection

N10PC20203 1011131
(FY10.1 Phase I)
Imprinted polymer nanoparticles for explosives detection

Seacoast Science, Inc.
2151 Las Palmas Drive
Suite C
Calrsbad, CA 92011-1575

05/17/2010
to
11/30/2010
$100,000.00

This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project consists of fundamental research into molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles to act as sensing points in novel detection system for explosives. The system is based upon MIP nanoparticles deposited upon a MEMS-based chemicapacitive sensor array. As the MIP nanoparticle binds the explosive, the polarizability of the material changes thus affecting the measured capacitance on the sensor chip. The monomer, cross-linker, and template of the MIP nanoparticle will be systematically varied to optimize the detection of explosives. The MIP nanoparticles will be synthesized by Dr. David Spivak. Similar materials have been developed and investigated in his laboratory in the Chemistry Department at the Louisiana State University (LSU). Sensors coated with these materials will be tested using Seacoast Science`s test systems under varied environmental conditions. Tasks include: design, synthesis, and characterization of MIP nanoparticles; inkjet deposition of MIP nanoparticles; and testing of the coated sensors against one explosive simulant and environmental interferrents. The overall goal of this program is the development and demonstration of an inventive biologically-inspired sensing motif for the sensitive and selective detection of not only explosives but eventually a wide range of chemicals relevant to the mission of DHS.

H-SB010.1-006
GPS Resolution in Denied Location (GRIDLOC)

N10PC20207 1011077
(FY10.1 Phase I)
Cheetah-Traks: Subterranean Navigation via Inertial Sensors and Multipath Resistant RF Ranging

TrellisWare Technologies, Inc.
16516 Via Esprillo
Suite 300
San Diego, CA 92127-1728

05/17/2010
to
11/30/2010
$97,245.02

To support DHS`s goals of developing real-time positioning of first responder personnel TrellisWare Technologies proposes to extend and integrate two advanced systems for accurate position resolution in severe multi-path, GPS-denied environments such as subterranean tunnels. This approach will demonstrate the effectiveness of integrating these systems consisting of low drift inertial sensors with an iteration-based multi-path resistant RF communications/ranging radio to create a high precision denied GPS navigation solution called Cheetah-Traks. The proposed integration will focus on the enhancement of key metrics which have limited the success and accuracy of competing navigation solutions providing a tactically relevant navigation solution without compromising performance, ease of use and deployment, mobility, and scalability.

H-SB010.2-003
Large-Scale Network Survivability, Rapid Recovery, and Reconstitution

D11PC20011 1021127
(FY10.2 Phase I)
Distributed, closed-loop, anonymized, dynamic collaborative defense against network threats

ThreatSTOP, Inc.
1743 Blue Water Lane
San Marcos, CA 92078-1056

12/15/2010
to
06/30/2011
$91,492.00

This Proposal is for the investigation of the feasibility, and if feasible, the requirements, for deploying distributed intrusion and bot detection services in a bundle inside multiple networks, while sharing the resulting threat information in an anonymized way. It will involve the implementation of combined defense and sensor nodes as gateways; local correlation, log processing and reporting engines; and dissemination of detected threat sources back to a central correlation authority which then disseminates the information to all participating entities. Key items to be examined are the scalability of distributing existing databases while maintaining consistency; anonymization of threat information detected while maintaining relevancy; and the scalability of processing data from the local detector enforcers into the private threat correlation system, sending the detected threats upstream to the global system, and disseminating the correlated data to all nodes. This will provide the requirements to scale the current ThreatSTOP system so that it can be fully commercialized to protect national security assets, large enterprises, and large numbers of individual users. The benefit will be dynamic detection and blocking of network level attacks and the dynamic disabling of botnets through the interruption of their command and control channels.

H-SB010.2-006
Helmet with Embedded Active Display for Emergency Responders (HEADER)

D10PC20048 1021051
(FY10.2 Phase I)
Helmet Embedded Conformal Augmented Display

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

10/15/2010
to
04/28/2011
$99,997.00

To address the HSARPA need for a next-generation helmet with an embedded heads-up display for emergency responder personal situation awareness, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Helmet Embedded Conformal Augmented Display (HECAD) that can be easily integrated into emergency responder helmet. The proposed HECAD system is based on a unique design that integrates environmentally hardened miniature microdisplays and electronics with POC-developed waveguide holographic image-projection optics conformal to or embedded onto helmet visor. The proposed lightweight, low-profile, low-power device will provide advanced situation awareness by displaying readouts and alerts of body-warned multiple sensors, and can switch between normal data and augmented scene display modes. In Phase I, POC will design HECAD for an advance first responder helmet and demonstrate the proposed concept`s feasibility through simulation and integration of a preliminary prototype system. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a fully functional prototype and integrate it with a selected helmet system to evaluate it in a simulated operational environment. Due to its modular low-profile, see-through design, the HECAD will have significant commercial applications primarily benefiting firefighters and emergency responders for disasters; it can also be used as heads-up displays in medical, sports, aerospace, training, manufacturing, and gaming applications.

H-SB010.2-008
Handheld Multisensor Wand for the Detection of Threat or Illicit Objects on Persons

D10PC20053 1021045
(FY10.2 Phase I)
Dielectric Relaxation Analyzing Probe

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

10/15/2010
to
04/28/2011
$99,992.00

To address the HSARPA need for a non-imaging handheld multisensory system for bulk detection of threats and illicit objects hidden on a person`s body, under clothing or in body cavities, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Dielectric Relaxation Analyzing Probe (DRAP). This proposed device is based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The DRAP device will offer detection of both conductive and nonconductive objects, and also works as a metal detector. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of DRAP by design, fabrication, and evaluation of a conceptual DRAP prototype. In Phase II POC plans to fabricate and demonstrate a prototype of the DRAP handheld multisensory system, verify and validate the probability of detection and false detection rates and the potential for threats and illicit objects to be camouflaged. The successful development of this technology at the end of Phase III will benefit the Nation in both government and commercial sectors by providing a versatile and wide-detection-range handheld screening tool. Commercial applications for this technology include the screening of passengers at checkpoints and cargo at ports of entry into the United States. The device can be used also by security guards, Coast Guards, and police officers.

H-SB010.2-008
Handheld Multisensor Wand for the Detection of Threat or Illicit Objects on Persons

D10PC20055 1021065
(FY10.2 Phase I)
Multi-Function Wand Prototype Development

Spectral Labs Incorporated
12265 World Trade Drive, Ste E
San Diego, CA 92128-3771

10/15/2010
to
04/28/2011
$99,927.00

This SLI proposal for development of a Multisensor Wand, which we designated the Multi-Function Wand (MFW), describes a carefully planned program to reach the overarching objective of providing a sound design concept that will address the vital need for a Handheld Multisensor tool to improve the checkpoint screener`s ability to quickly make a judgment call on whether someone is concealing illicit objects or threats without requiring analysis of an image. The ultimate Multi-Function Wand (MFW) Program objective is to successfully design and develop an MFW prototype suitable for independent evaluation by the Transportation Security Laboratory (TSL) by the end of a Phase II program. The MFW will integrate multiple sensing technologies in a hand held sensor that will provide an unambiguous indication of the presence of contraband. To meet this need, Spectral Labs Incorporated plans at inception to apply modern modeling methods to validate a detailed trade study to continue the sensor selection process initiated during this proposal preparation. This effort will result in a proof of concept test bed design that will provide objective data in Phase I. In parallel an innovative signal processing algorithm will be implemented in MATLAB to improve the Signal to Noise ratio.

H-SB010.2-009
Personal Situational Awareness App

D10PC20056 1021072
(FY10.2 Phase I)
Context-Sensitive Situational Awareness Server/Client

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

10/15/2010
to
04/28/2011
$99,996.00

To address the HSARPA need for a downloadable commercial software application that provides personal situational awareness to individuals based on their (stated) location, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Context-Sensitive Situational Awareness Server/Client (CSSAS/C) system. This proposed technology is based on geospatial analysis and dynamic data-reduction and validation techniques. CSSAS/C offers a subscription-based push service that sends customized alerts derived from multiple sources (e.g., weather warnings, sigalerts), conditioned relative to the user`s location, state, surroundings, and other contextual information. Alerts can be viewed on mobile communication devices. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of CSSAS/C by developing and debugging prototype software to exhibit the user operations involved in subscribing to and using the service. In Phase II POC plans to develop and demonstrate enhanced client/server software that meets specific CONOPS requirements. Successful project completion at the end of Phase III will benefit the nation by supplying subscribers, who now wait minutes to hours for information, with real-time alerts on handheld devices describing local risks and threats. Commercial applications of CSSAS/C include providing alerts to fixed-location Internet devices for delivery to users who are homebound or do not have mobile communication devices.

H-SB010.2-009
Personal Situational Awareness App

D10PC20058 1021075
(FY10.2 Phase I)
Sentek Global PSAP

Sentek Consulting
651 Arroyo Drive
San Diego, CA 92103-6401

10/15/2010
to
04/28/2011
$99,813.27

Sentek Global (Sentek) is a Service Disabled Veteran Owned, Small Business (SDVOSB) and SBA-certified 8(a) small business that has formed a world-class engineering team with DefenseWeb Technologies, SAIC, & Shomo Technical Systems in response to DHS SBIR H-SB010.2-09. This team`s in depth skills set includes application development, systems integration, architecture design and advanced data management algorithms. These talents have been combined to provide the Department of Homeland Security with a comprehensive technical approach for building an innovative and scaleable Personal Situational Awareness Application prototype. The phase 1 prototype will allow individuals to gather information from public safety dispatch calls and commercial radio station broadcast via a cellular phone application. Additionally, the prototype will simulate state and local agencies will being able to push vital information of interest to a subscriber base such as crime reports, natural disaster warnings, and other items of public safety. The proposed solution will create an efficient means for critical, real and near real time, information to be passed to the public. The end result is that U.S. citizens will have actionable intelligence literally in the palm of their hands, allowing them to better prepare for, and respond to, terrorist actions, violent crime, and natural disasters.

H-SB011.1-001
Small Vessel Cooperative Identification and Tracking (SVCT) and Noncooperative Vessel Imaging and Tracking (NVIT) Technologies

D11PC20133 1111034
(FY11.1 Phase I)
Multispectral Omnidirectional Small Vessel Identification Imaging and Tracking Camera System

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

05/15/2011
to
11/30/2011
$99,985.00

To address the DHS need for small vessel cooperative identification and tracking (SVCT) and non-cooperative vessel imaging and tracking (NVIT) technologies, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Multispectral Omnidirectional Small Vessel Identification Imaging and Tracking Camera (MOVIDITC) system. The proposed MOVIDITC system is based on a unique integration of POC`s demonstrated subsystem technologies, including omnidirectional 360-degree optics, multispectral imaging sensors, scanning telescopic imager, multitarget video tracker, eye-safe laser designation with high sensitivity heterodyne detection, and omnidirectional retroreflective responder for cooperative small vessels to provide unique identifier codes and other vessel information. By using MEMS-based gyrosensors and lightweight mirror-scanning devices, the system provides stabilized imagery with real-time target tracking. In Phase I, POC will develop the MOVIDITC design and demonstrate its feasibility in meeting DHS`s requirements and desired enhancements by engineering analysis and prototype evaluation using a laboratory breadboard setup. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a fully functional prototype for testing in a simulated laboratory maritime environment, and evaluate its performance and suitability for SVCT and/or NVIT. In Phase III an engineering prototype will be developed, incorporating MOVIDITC`s SVCT and NVIT capability into a DHS platform for evaluation in an operational environment for production readiness.

H-SB011.1-002
Preparation of Environmental Samples for Biological Detection

D11PC20135 1111004
(FY11.1 Phase I)
Multistage Dielectrophoretic Sample Preparation System

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

05/15/2011
to
11/30/2011
$99,992.00

High-fidelity biomolecular analysis techniques, such as PCR, DNA sequencing, or ELISA, rely heavily on adequate sample preprocessing. To achieve maximum performance from these sensitive analytical techniques, the DHS needs novel methods for flow-through systems that prepare and concentrate biological materials from environmental samples. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a Multistage Dielectrophoretic Sample Preparation (MDSP) system, based on a size-exclusion filtering method combined with a multistage electrodeless dielectrophoretic separation technique. Separation of biological material is followed by bio-material purification, elution, concentration, and collection. The MDSP system will be composed of a reusable microfluidic chip, microfluidic platform, and readout unit. The innovations in the MDSP system enable it to perform biological material separation into four classes: bacterial cells and spores, viral particles, DNAs/RNAs, and proteins/polypeptides. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the MDSP system by developing a benchtop prototype capable of separating, purifying, concentrating, and collecting the four individual classes of biological material from a mixture containing mineral debris in less than 15 minutes. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a fully functional MDSP system prototype capable of processing biological material from environmental samples, such as soil, that can be integrated into an automated detection system.

H-SB011.1-003
Public Safety Broadband Mobile Application for Mission Critical Voice

D11PC20138 1111017
(FY11.1 Phase I)
Creating a Pragmatic Plan to Deploy and Evolve an LTE Centric Mission Critical Mobile Voice System

Covia Labs, Inc.
465 Fairchild Drive
Suite 130
Mountian View, CA 94043-2252

05/15/2011
to
11/30/2011
$100,000.00

In this Phase I proposal, Covia Labs proposes the development of a plan for a new standardized methodology and application framework to ensure that future 700MHz LTE infrastructure and handsets meet the necessary requirements for mission critical mobile voice. These requirements will be identified during discussions with regional public safety centers established to foster collaboration among the public safety community. In parallel, research will be conducted into the current and planned state of the LTE standards and implementations for direct applicability for critical voice services. The plan to meet the resulting detailed requirements will leverage the extensive development of the Covia Connector software interoperability platform. Any devices, infrastructure and applications built using this platform will benefit from its unified security, communications bridging, fault-tolerance, configuration management, binary portability and unit testing models. This will ensure that equipment and infrastructure can be transitioned and evolved into a system with a high degree of interoperability across all the necessary technologies and different vendors` software and hardware well into the future. Appropriate LTE hardware for the Connector platform will be identified.

H-SB011.1-006
Improved Firefighter Face Piece Lenses for Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus

D11PC20146 1111019
(FY11.1 Phase I)
Visor-Enhanced SCBA Transparent Armor Lens System

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

05/15/2011
to
11/30/2011
$99,996.00

To address this HSARPA need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Visor-Enhanced SCBA Transparent Armor (VESTA) lens, based on a transparent metallic-oxide material system, and serving as a drop-in replacement lens in current mask systems. VESTA possesses improved thermomechanical durability (compared to existing polycarbonate lenses) with 5x greater service temperatures and 3x greater ballistic impact resistance. Candidate materials will be identified based on visual acuity, hardness, and resistance to impact, scratching, and temperature, so the VESTA lens provides effective protection in the most hazardous of environments (i.e., high temperatures). In Phase I, we will evaluate candidate material(s) for infrared reflectivity and thermodynamic stability, and develop a comprehensive test plan, including exposure to extremely high temperatures. A proof-of-concept prototype will be produced. In Phase II, POC will develop a full-scale prototype of the VESTA lens and evaluate it in simulated operational environments and training facilities. Formal testing will validate the system to NFPA 1981. The successful completion of this project at the end of Phase III will benefit the nation in both government and commercial sectors by providing enhanced personal protective equipment for First Responders. Commercial applications for VESTA include enhanced protective eyewear for medical and industrial workers.

H-SB011.2-004
Short Standoff Checkpoint Detection Systems for Explosives

D11PC20250 DHS SBIR-2011.2-H-SB011.2-004-0019-I
(DHS SBIR-2011.2 Phase I)
Standoff Explosive Particle Spectrometer (SEPS)

Spectral Labs Incorporated
12265 World Trade Drive, Ste E
San Diego, CA 92128-3771

10/15/2011
to
04/30/2012
$99,871.96

US Government Agencies have recognized the need for checkpoint inspection technology at airports to deter the transporting of destructive weapons or illegal materials into or within the United States since the early 1970s. Since 9/11 the Government has been vigorously supporting development and deployment of ever improving policies and technologies to provide an ever-present, yet non invasive, safeguard for our citizens. Among the tools employed for checkpoint screening, chemical trace detectors enabling rapid analysis of microscopic trace particles on a person or package have been a very effective technology. Yet, trace detectors are limited by the difficulty of transporting particles to the sensor since explosive molecules are extremely nonvolatile or sticky. This has traditionally required taking swipes of the target person or bag and heating the swab for analysis in an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) instrument. DHS is seeking stand off detection of trace explosive particle without the need for collecting the particles in an IMS (or Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer) sensor. To respond to this situation SLI is proposing an innovative exploitation of the Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) technology to develop a Standoff Explosive Particle Spectrometer (SEPS). Data and modeling in Phase I will enable SLI to expand on previous laboratory techniques to optimize the technology for detecting a wide range of explosive species in real-world screening environments. In this application, the safety of both passengers and operators must be considered and regulatory safety requirements for human exposure must be met.

H-SB011.2-006
Intelligent 'Object' Symbology

D11PC20255 DHS SBIR-2011.2-H-SB011.2-006-0020-I
(DHS SBIR-2011.2 Phase I)
Web-based Intelligent Extraction of Symbology based on Contextual Information

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

10/15/2011
to
04/30/2012
$99,978.68

To address the DHS need for intelligent symbology technologies, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop new Web-based Intelligent Symbology Extraction based on Context (WISEC) incorporating intelligent text stream processing (ITSP), an entity-attribute-value (EVA) model, and progressive automatic creation of symbology (PACS). The WISEC will offer intelligent symbology generation, updating, and management that interact with structured or unstructured data sources, identify keywords and named entities, generate or update appropriate symbols, coreference activities/incidents, store them in a central database with no downtime, and provide information relevant to the interest and mission of the end user. In Phase I, we will demonstrate the feasibility of the WISEC by developing its architecture and components and integrating them into a prototype for testing and evaluation in two scenarios: intelligent symbology for crime alerts (iPAD application) and intelligent symbology for public safety alerts (Web application). Performance metrics will be developed. At the end of Phase I, the technology readiness level (TRL) reached will be 3. In Phase II we plan to develop a WISEC prototype, integrate it with popular browsers and geospatial applications, test it using public data sources, evaluate it using the performance metrics developed, and deliver it to the DHS. The successful completion of this project at the end of Phase III will benefit the nation in both government and commercial sectors by providing intelligent symbology with standard data representation that is sharable among various communities. Commercial applications for this technology include business intelligence, text analytics, and enterprise content management and archiving.

H-SB012.1-002
Moving Target Defense

HSHQDC-12-C-00025 DHS SBIR-2012.1-H-SB012.1-002 -0023-I
(DHS SBIR-2012.1 Phase I)
Emerald: Binary Program Randomization

Ensighta Security, Inc.
2700 Le Conte Ave, Suite 601
Berkeley, CA 94709-1052

06/01/2012
to
12/03/2012
$99,988.29

In response to SBIR topic H-SB012.1-002, "Moving Target Defense", Ensighta Security Inc proposes to develop a binary program randomization tool based on advanced binary analysis techniques called Emerald. Current computer systems suffer from mono-culture where the same system is deployed identically on many machines. This makes it easy for attackers to replicate attacks across many machines. Binary program randomization can be an effective technique for moving target defense. Emerald will employ state-of-the-art techniques to understand a binary program's code paths and data structures, which allows us to comprehensively randomize the binary program at multiple levels. This will maximize the difficulty randomization provides for attackers as the search space that the attacker has to examine significantly increases. Our technique also minimizes the attack surface as there is no need for either the original un-randomized software, or the randomization software itself, to reside on the end-user's computer, reducing the possibilities for an attacker to disable the randomization process. In terms of commercial uses of this technology, providing an effective binary program randomization tool will be greeted with enthusiasm by potential users while both government and commercial sectors are spending more money on securing their data and infrastructure. We will develop an operationally ready version of Emerald in Phase 2. At the beginning of the Phase 1 project, we will have a TRL of 3. We will have a TRL of 5 at the completion of Phase 1.

H-SB012.2-004
Hardening for Commercially Available Hand Held Computing and Communications Devices for First Responders

HSHQDC-12-C-00070 DHS SBIR-2012.2-H-SB012.2-004-0003-I
(DHS SBIR-2012.2 Phase I)
Hardening for Commercially Available Hand Held Computing and Communications Devices for First Responders

SA Photonics
130 Knowles Drive
Suite A
Los Gatos, CA 95032-1832

09/15/2012
to
07/14/2013
$149,938.01

First responders operate in emergency situations that require ruggedized gear that can survive temperature, impact, and moisture. Utilizing the communication devices that first responders already carry on them has many benefits including: always on-scene, reduced cost of distributing equipment, elimination of training requirements, and many others. Ruggedizing commercial hand held computing and communications devices provides the DHS the benefit of state of the art handsets without having to pay for the development of custom hardware. SA Photonics has developed a hardware agnostic approach to ruggedizing commercial off-the-shelf mobile communication devices. Our approach protects devices from impact, moisture, and temperature extremes. The SA Photonics ruggedized enclosure was especially designed to protect the weakest part of a smart phone; the glass touch screen. This protection is provided while still maintaining full functionality of a touch screen, such as pinch and swipe, that first responders are accustom to using in their daily lives. Additional battery life is also provided with an auxiliary battery and solar and inductive charging features. Our design can be modified to fit any smart phone or tablet platform. In a Phase I program, SA Photonics will first perform research with first responder groups to identify the most widely utilized devices and first responders' desired functionality and features. We will then complete the preliminary design of a ruggedized enclosure, provide technical drawings and demonstrate critical subsystem functionality. The SA Photonics ruggedized case will have commercial applications in first responder groups, Fire, Police, S.W.A.T, and military sectors.

H-SB013.1-001
Radio Frequency (RF) Sensing of Personnel in Wooded Areas

HSHQDC-13-C-00037 HSHQDC-13-R-00009-H-SB013.1-001-0008-I
(HSHQDC-13-R-00009 Phase I)
RF Sensing of Personnel in Wooded Areas

TrellisWare Technologies, Inc.
16516 Via Esprillo
Suite 300
San Diego, CA 92127-1728

05/01/2013
to
10/31/2013
$99,927.85

Perhaps because it is the world's longest undefended border, smuggling is endemic across the our northern frontier with Canada. Since a 5,525 mile border cannot be effectively patrolled on foot, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) must rely on technology to detect and track smugglers. Radio tomographic imaging (RTI) is an emerging device-free passive (DfP) localization technology that could aid in this effort. RTI employs a dense network of RF sensors, each of which broadcasts probe messages and records received signal strength (RSS) data. As an object passes through the sensor field, RSS measurement changes are used to detect its presence and track its movement. In Phase I of the proposed program, TrellisWare will design both the sensor network and localization components of a complete personnel detection/tracking system. Our proposed program culminates with a live demonstration of the developed technology in a wooded environment running on existing sensor network hardware. In a potential Phase II follow-on program, TrellisWare would prototype sufficient hardware to enable larger-scale testing (e.g., a 1 km x 250 m forested area). By leveraging military sensor network products that already meets most mission requirements, TrellisWare can provide the Department of Homeland Security with the most "bang for the buck" in the development of a personnel detection and tracking sensor network to help secure our northern border.

H-SB013.1-004
GPS Disruption Detection and Localization

HSHQDC-13-C-00044 HSHQDC-13-R-00009-H-SB013.1-004-0013-I
(HSHQDC-13-R-00009 Phase I)
Civilian Interference Detection and Estimation Receiver (CIDER)

Toyon Research Corporation
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117-3021

05/01/2013
to
10/31/2013
$99,999.99

Toyon has teamed with two utilities to survey the use of civilian GPS receivers in the energy and communication sectors, and to determine their vulnerabilities to intentional interference, including narrowband and wideband jamming, spoofers, repeaters, and RF-based 'software attacks.' As part of the survey, the characteristics and weaknesses of the deployed civilian receivers will be determined and methods of detecting, identifying, and locating sources of GPS interference within the electrical and communication networks will be identified. Based on the survey results, Toyon will design a system for interference detection, identification, and geolocalization (I-DIG). I-DIG will comprise a network of receiver nodes and a centralized geolocalization filter. Each node will include a direction-finding (DF) GPS receiver, which is the most critical component of the I-DIG system. Toyon's patented DF GPS receiver technology has been tested and demonstrated in realistic environments and has a TRL of 6. The collaborative geolocalization algorithm has been developed over the course of numerous programs and is at a TRL of 5. At the conclusion of the Phase II effort, which will include a complete system demonstration in a relevant environment, we anticipate that both components will have a TRL of 7 and will be ready for deployment. The proposed technology has the potential for immediate integration into our country's electrical transmission and communication networks. Since Toyon's DF GPS receiver is also capable of anti-jam (AJ) and anti-spoof GPS processing, it is applicable to any civilian application that desires protection against intentional and unintentional interference.

H-SB013.1-004
GPS Disruption Detection and Localization

HSHQDC-13-C-00043 HSHQDC-13-R-00009-H-SB013.1-004-0016-I
(HSHQDC-13-R-00009 Phase I)
GPS EMitter LOCalization (GEMLOC)

Coherent Navigation, Inc.
1800 Gateway Dr
Suite 160
San Mateo, CA 94404-4072

05/01/2013
to
10/31/2013
$99,993.92

In response to DHS SBIR Topic H-SB013.1-004 we propose to investigate the development of a next-generation, tiered, inexpensive, light-weight, low-power, high-performance GPS emitter detection and localization system. The system will provide high-accuracy (high-sensitivity), real-time or near-real-time estimates of position, velocity, transmit frequency, and transmit power level of multiple, moving, low-power emitters in the GPS L bands (L1, L2, and L5). It will work with existing deployed GPS equipment. Reporting of events will make use of existing technology, if applicable. At the end of Phase I, we plan to have a solid understand of GPS vulnerabilities understanding of GPS dependencies and vulnerabilities in the Energy, Communications, and Transportation Sectors and a prototype design for a GPS emitter detection, localization, and reporting system for these three sectors. At the end of Phase II, we anticipate having a much deeper understanding of GPS dependencies and vulnerabilities in these sector plus the Emergency Services Sector. We plan to deploy a prototype GPS emitter detection, localization, and reporting system. We also plan to carry out a demonstration of the capability at NAVFEST or a suitable test environment. Today, the TRL is 3 and we expect it to be TRL 5 or 6 by the end of the Phase-II contract.

H-SB013.2-001
Bulk Currency Vapor Detection in Confined Spaces

HSHQDC-13-C-00101 HSHQDC-13-R-00032-H-SB013.2-001-0024-I
(HSHQDC-13-R-00032 Phase I)
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE OPTIMUM CLANDESTINE CURRENCY DETECTOR

KWJ Engineering Inc.
8440 Central Avenue
Suite 2D
Newark, CA 94560-3453

09/20/2013
to
03/19/2014
$99,999.37

KWJ leverages its extensive experience to develop an automatic clandestine currency detection system (CCDS) for screening smuggled money in DHS real world applications. The ideal such system is equipped with probe (sampling, pre-concentration and detection), sensor array detection system or analytical instrument combination, analysis hardware and software, and communications components. The proposed CCDS can identify the unique signature of U.S. banknotes precisely, fast, and, in a non-intrusive manner, and can be deployed and easily used. Phase I will isolate and identify the ideal the technology for the field detection of concealed money. Further, through the Phase I effort, comprehensive knowledge regarding the criteria and the optimum technologies for developing a CCDS will be collected and organized within a disciplined evaluation matrix. This knowledge is valuable for this project and for developing other field screening techniques to complement existing DHS operations. In Phase I, we will perform a comprehensive survey to identify the best technology and optimum path to develop the CCDS. The exact US currency signature and the specifications required for detecting bulk currency in confined spaces will be quantified. The optimum technique for building a CCDS will be selected based on thorough technique survey, KWJ's extensive gas sensing and field analytical experience, and a sound statistical systems engineering evaluation of the information. A final report includes the optimized path to an innovative CCDS with supporting alpha design documentation. In Phase II, a prototype of CCDS can be fabricated and tested by KWJ itself or by cooperating with appropriate partners.

H-SB013.2-002
Software Based Roots of Trust for Enhanced Mobile Device Security

HSHQDC-13-C-00111 HSHQDC-13-R-00032-H-SB013.2-002-0019-I
(HSHQDC-13-R-00032 Phase I)
Software Based Roots of Trust for Enhanced Mobile Device Security

RAM Laboratories, Inc.
591 Camino de la Reina
Suite 610
San Diego, CA 92108-3108

09/20/2013
to
03/19/2014
$99,999.14

Mobile devices require security features that are utilized by application developers and users to ensure secure communication and commerce. Existing features on mobile hardware are often considered proprietary between the manufacturer and the telecommunications provider, rendering them unavailable for external use. Current works-around involve adding trusted hardware to the device, which increases cost and SWAP, while using a software keying approach places the device's Identity key outside of protected memory, subjecting it to attack. To provide the needed security, while addressing cost, SWAP, and performance, RAM Laboratories proposes to develop a Mobile Device Trust Solution that implements Roots of Trust (RoTs) via a firmware solution that builds on secure mobile device TrustZone(R) technology, hardware virtualization, TPM Mobile specifications and Android device drivers. The resultant solution will provide a software-based trusted chipset-equivalent security for mobile applications by establishing a Identity to fingerprint the device for keying and signature generation. This Identity is generated by extracting physical circuitry information from physically unclonable functions (PUFs) that establish a unique Identity for the device. The PUFs support a verification engine that generates signatures and keys for RoT Verification; they are used for key generation to encrypt storage for RoT Storage; and, they are used as a basis for keying and activation codes for managing assertions for RoT - Integrity. Our solution will be integrated with our teammate, ViaSat's, Secure Mobility Environment (SME) firmware and targeted to Samsung Galaxy Note II and S4 devices. Phase I takes this technology from TRL 2 to TRL 4.

H-SB014.1-001
Mobile Footprint Detection

HSHQDC-14-C-00020 HSHQDC-14-R-00005-H-SB014.1-001-0012-I
(HSHQDC-14-R-00005 Phase I)
A vehicle mounted radar footprint trail detection system

AKELA, Inc.
5551 Ekwill Street, Suite A
Santa Barbara, CA 93111-2355

05/01/2014
to
10/31/2014
$99,951.04

Often illegal border crossing along the southern border takes place in unimproved areas not constantly monitored by Border Patrol agents or deployed sensors. Agents must rely on sign-cutting to detect traffic and start their pursuit. These signs can be difficult or impossible to detect from a moving platform with the unaided eye due to inclement weather, insufficient illumination and agent fatigue. By developing an all weather sensor focused on footprint trail detection to aid in monitoring unimproved areas, additional illegal border crossing can be detected. AKELA is proposing to develop a low cost, vehicle mounted, radar based footprint trail detection sensor to aid Border Patrol Agents in this task. The system will consist of simple low cost Ka-band radar hardware and data preprocessing and detection algorithms. Work will include radar test bed development, research into electromagnetic footprint scattering phenomenology, and algorithm development. A feasibility demonstration using a brassboard system prototype will be conducted at the end of Phase I. A manufacturing cost analysis will inform system design and help to minimize system cost. Completion of Phase I and Phase II efforts will result in a mature system prototype capable of detecting footprint trails from a moving vehicle in real environments. Commercial applications resulting from research and development efforts include roadway-monitoring sensors and airport runway foreign object damage detection sensors.

H-SB014.1-003
System Simulation Tools for X-ray based Explosive Detection Equipment

HSHQDC-14-C-00021 HSHQDC-14-R-00005-H-SB014.1-003-0001-I
(HSHQDC-14-R-00005 Phase I)
X-ray Simulation Platform for Explosive Detection Equipment

Triple Ring Technologies
39655 Eureka Drive
Newark, CA 94560-4806

05/01/2014
to
10/31/2014
$99,861.47

Computer simulations have the potential to improve the development x-ray-based explosive detection equipment. Despite the number of available simulation tools, no existing tool meets the needs of the explosive detection community. This is due to (1) the flexibility required to model the range of objects, physical processes, and system geometries used in explosive detection, and (2) the usability required for adoption. The proposed project will design a software tool that meets the needs of the explosive detection community, while being validated for imaging tasks relevant to explosive detection. One objective of this project is to evaluate how existing tools match experimental data, including artifacts and nonidealities. The second objective is to design a software architecture focused on usability and flexibility, while incorporating validated physics-based models. Usability and flexibility will be designed into the architecture by incorporating feedback from potential users. Successful completion through Phase I and Phase II will result in a software tool that is easy to use and is applicable to wide range system geometries, object definitions, and x-ray-based imaging techniques. Because the software will be designed to address user needs, the anticipated result is that the software will be adopted by developers of x-ray-based explosive detection equipment. Once adopted, the simulation software will be used to reduce time to market for scanners by enabling inexpensive and efficient system prototyping, parameter optimization, and system testing. The simulation software can also be used to generate a large library of test data for algorithm development and testing.

H-SB014.1-004
Physiological Monitoring and Environmental Scanning Technology

HSHQDC-14-C-00023 HSHQDC-14-R-00005-H-SB014.1-004-0006-I
(HSHQDC-14-R-00005 Phase I)
Wireless Physiological and Environmental Monitoring System

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510

05/01/2014
to
10/31/2014
$99,979.28

To address the DHS need for a single wireless device that will monitor physiological and environmental conditions of and surrounding a first responder, and relay the information to the incident command, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Wireless Physiological and Environmental Monitoring (WiPEM) system incorporating four major components: (1) an array of physiological sensors, (2) an array of miniaturized environmental sensors, (3) processing and communication electronics, and (4) mechanical packaging. Leveraging POC's previous technologies, the proposed WiPEM system provides critical information not only on the physiological status of multiple first responders to be monitored and transmitted to the incident command, but also on critical surrounding information to enhance the situation awareness. The novel design of the open-architecture system is developed based on POC's prior developments in compatible PPE for DHS and working with the industrial leaders of PPE including Scott Safety to be able to achieve certification for various applicable NFPA standards in the future. In Phase I, POC plans to provide a comprehensive documentation, assessments, and feasibility demonstration of an optimal solution to address DHS's requirements and first responders' needs. The WiPEM system will also comply with the existing PPE/SCBA systems and FEMA requirements. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a fully functional prototype system according to the outline developed in the Phase I detailed technical analysis for further testing.

H-SB014.1-005
Machine-to-Machine Architectures to Improve First Responder Communications

HSHQDC-14-C-00026 HSHQDC-14-R-00005-H-SB014.1-005-0005-I
(HSHQDC-14-R-00005 Phase I)
Intelligent Internet of Things Architecture to Improve First Responder Communications

Ejenta, Inc.
3978 Cesar Chavez St
San Francisco, CA 94131-2004

05/01/2014
to
10/31/2014
$99,958.85

Machine-to-machine communications (M2M) and the Internet of Things (IoT) are revolutionizing many industries and improving communications and operations, however adoption in public safety is still in its infancy. The emergence of first responder broadband networks introduces new ways to respond to incidents. Devices worn by first responders, or placed on victims during triage, can transmit voice, along with two-way video and data streams, including location, vital signs and environmental conditions, allowing unprecedented incident management capability. Today, first responders are starting to use wearable devices, such as sensors embedded in firefighter suits, and head-mounted cameras and heads-up displays used in law enforcement. However, most of these devices do not interoperate with each other or with existing land mobile radio (LMR) networks, which will realistically remain the primary voice communication devices for many years to come. Thus, interoperability between heterogeneous devices and networks remains a challenge for effective emergency response. In this effort, Ejenta will develop a scalable technical architecture that allows heterogeneous communication networks and wearable devices to interoperate to improve first responder communications. The architecture will use a standards based approach and will incorporate big data technologies that allow first responders to rely on increasingly large amounts of live streaming telemetry data (e.g., from wearable cameras and vital signs sensors, to road side sensors to social media feeds). The architecture will incorporate cloud-based intelligent agent services to route data and reduce information overload, with the goal of increasing first responder situational awareness and supporting real-time decision making capabilities.

H-SB014.2-001
Decontamination Technologies for Biological Agents

HSHQDC-14-C-00051 HSHQDC-14-R-00035-H-SB014.2-001-0005-I
(HSHQDC-14-R-00035 Phase I)
Biological Warfare Agents Remediation System

Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510

09/01/2014
to
02/28/2015
$99,976.46

To address the DHS need for a novel technology platform that is non-destructive to common environmental surfaces but capable of destroying a range of biological agents, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a Biological Warfare Agents Remediation (BIFAR) system based on photocatalytic ionization of hydrogen peroxide inside porous microcarriers. In Phase I, POC will develop, demonstrate and show material compatibility for an innovative, low cost, environmentally-friendly concept for 6-log reduction of a non-hazardous, biological agent simulant, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), on three environmental surfaces such as concrete, wood, and galvanized metal. In Phase II, POC plans to optimize the innovative technical approach and demonstrate 6-log reduction in viable biological agent simulants, such as the Sterne strain of Bacillus anthracis, on the following environmental surfaces: concrete, wood, soil, galvanized metal, glass, plastic, and painted wallboard under required environmental conditions and using commercial components. Also, POC will demonstrate a small pilot-scale production process that can produce the innovative decontamination product in a safe and cost-effective manner that can be readily scaled by a qualified manufacturer for cost-effective production of large, commercial quantities. Commercial applications include pest control, mold and fungus removal, and sterilization of medical facilities and sensitive equipment.

H-SB014.2-004
Radiant Laser Exposure Monitoring for Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ) Evaluation

HSHQDC-14-C-00059 HSHQDC-14-R-00035-H-SB014.2-004-0005-I
(HSHQDC-14-R-00035 Phase I)
Laser Exposure Monitoring System (LEMS)

SARA, Inc.
6300 Gateway Drive
Cypress, CA 90630-4844

09/01/2014
to
02/28/2015
$97,778.19

The proposal describes a solution offered by SARA, Inc. in response to the problem of developing a Laser Exposure Monitoring System (LEMS) capable of directly measuring laser exposures relative to Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits and establishing the boundaries of the Nominal Hazard Zones (NHZ). The approach uses multiple sensors to measure the irradiance and spectrum of the laser irradiation and transmit the data to a laptop computer, where dedicated software process the data to calculate MPE and derive NHZ automatically and with minimal operator intervention. In Phase 1, we will develop and demonstrate the functionality of a brass board system operating at UV, Visible and near-IR portions of the spectrum, and will also present design recommendations for the development of the desired prototype system in Phase 2.

H-SB014.2-005
Status Indicator for Downed Power Lines

HSHQDC-14-C-00062 HSHQDC-14-R-00035-H-SB014.2-005-0026-I
(HSHQDC-14-R-00035 Phase I)
Status Indicator for Downed Powerlines

Tanner Research Inc.
825 S. Myrtle Ave.
Monrovia, CA 91016-3424

09/01/2014
to
02/28/2015
$99,997.13

Severe weather, aging infrastructure, deferred maintenance, and other reasons contribute to calamitous events with regard to uninterrupted power supply to heavily populated urban areas. Not only are power interruptions considered a sign of poor utility infrastructure, but the events can be extremely deadly in consequence to citizens living in proximity. A majority of all power outages happen to occur on the utility and distribution sub-systems, where people live and work. Moreover, the variety of safety hazards from downed powerlines creates an equally serious threat for those working to recover from the damages of a line failure event. Many downed powerlines are first come across by first responders and not power utility maintenance crews, so it is very important to be able to warn them on-site of the imminent danger. Tanner Research proposes to assist in power restoration and recovery efforts in multiple fashions: First, to alert immediately alert proximal citizenry to apparent dangers and cue first responders. Second, to identify when and where a failure is occurring able to isolate the danger and repair it to contain and reduce the potential number of lives affected. Furthermore, with the current global warming weather patterns leading to drought and high fire danger in brush and forest zones, the ability to warn of a downed powerline will reduce potential causes of accidental brush fires. Our proposed concept will not only warn people who are in close proximity, but wirelessly alert the utility company of the specific location and time of the powerline abnormality.

H-SB014.2-006
Field Detection and Analysis for Fire Gases and Particulates

HSHQDC-14-C-00072 HSHQDC-14-R-00035-H-SB014.2-006-0006-I
(HSHQDC-14-R-00035 Phase I)
An Ultra-Low Power Handheld Device for Analysis of the Post-Fire Environment

KWJ Engineering Inc.
8440 Central Avenue
Suite 2D
Newark, CA 94560-3453

09/01/2014
to
02/28/2015
$99,999.56

KWJ proposes to develop an ultra-low power and low cost, handheld device for monitoring of post-fire air quality, including DHS target toxic gases, combustion gases, CO2, LEL and particular matter (PM). The proposed device will significantly improve the current air monitoring instrumentation of protecting fire responders from hazard post-fire environment. Current multi-gas analyzers are not suitable for field applications, either providing insufficient toxic gas analysis (only 4-6 gases), or large, heavy and with a slow analysis time. An additional sampler is required to collect PM information. KWJ possesses several patented sensor techniques for manufacturing small, ultralow power (microwatts per sensor) yet high performance gas sensors: printed amperometric sensor, MEMS sensors and compact multi-channel sensor chips. Integrating these innovative gas sensors with a compact PM detector, KWJ will be able to develop a device that offers a broad range of sensing requirements in a single, highly portable and low power package for personnel safety in the post-fire environment. In Phase I, KWJ will thoroughly evaluate commercially available gas sensors and KWJ sensing technique, choose corresponding KWJ advanced sensing technique, select candidates of CO2, LEL and PM detectors, fabricate ultra-small, ultra-low power printed sensors and compare their performance with commercial sensors, and lay out the detailed design of the proposed device. The prototypes of the device will be built in Phase II and tested in the field.

H-SB014.2-006
Field Detection and Analysis for Fire Gases and Particulates

HSHQDC-14-C-00065 HSHQDC-14-R-00035-H-SB014.2-006-0017-I
(HSHQDC-14-R-00035 Phase I)
A Handheld Multi-Gas Sensor Based on Selective Gas Adsorption on Mass Transducers

Matrix Sensors Inc.
3560 Dunhill Street Suite 100
San Diego, CA 92121-1232

09/01/2014
to
02/28/2015
$99,980.00

We propose to develop a portable, rugged, handheld multi-gas sensor that is well within the solicitation requirements. We will leverage a mature class of mass sensors that include, for example: quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). These sensors boast extraordinary sensitivity to changes in mass (e.g., 50 femtograms for CMUTs) and are used today in several applications including high resolution ultrasonic imaging and film thickness monitoring. The membranes will be coated with materials that exhibit highly selective uptake of the target gases specified in the solicitation. When the device is exposed to a gas molecule that binds to the coating material the resulting mass change will be detected by the mass sensor. The chemical kinetics of the coatings will be engineered to selectively adsorb and desorb the target gases with sub-10 second response times. We will integrate a commercial particle counter with multiple mass sensors to measure all 12 gases specified in the solicitation. The mass sensors are small and thin (less than 10x10x1 mm) and light (less than 1 gram) and their readout electronics can fit on a standard pc board that is 3 in x 3 in x 0.2 in while consuming 300 mW of power allowing for 17 hours of continuous operation. Because of the extraordinarily small size of our sensor technology, we will be able to use ruggedized packaging to meet the drop test requirement, while still satisfying the target specifications for size, weight, battery life, cost, and response time.

H-SB015.1-004
Privacy Protecting Analytics for the Internet of Things

HSHQDC-15-C-00022 HSHQDC-15-R-00017-H-SB015.1-004-0006-I
(HSHQDC-15-R-00017 Phase I)
Distributed System for Privacy Protecting Speech Processing

Mod9 Technologies
2150 SHATTUCK AVE, PENTHOUSE
BERKELEY, CA 94704-1370

05/01/2015
to
10/31/2015
$100,000.00

This proposal explores feature representations for automatic speech processing algorithms with a focus on preserving the clients' privacy. We address two different use cases of privacy: a system that transcribes speech, but is unable to infer the identity of speakers, such as an anonymous tip hotline; and a system that identifies speakers, but is unable to recognize the communicated messages, useful in scenario where a many conversations may be under surveillance in order to locate and isolate a targeted individual. We investigate the feasibility of implementing such systems by focusing on the audio signal representations in a distributed system, where embedded devices compute representations and transmit them to a Big Data analytics service via the Internet. Basic spectral acoustic features, tandem/bottleneck features, and high-dimensional outputs from deep neural networks will all be evaluated for both automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speaker identification (SID) tasks. Performance will be assessed to identify configurations favorable for both use cases. We additionally consider the possibility that an adversarial service operator may attempt to associate identities of speakers by clustering received requests, or reconstructing messages that have been transmitted over a mixture network. In addition to serving the homeland security mission, the private-sector commercialization potential of this research is substantial. It could prove useful to Remeeting, which is being developed as a mobile app and cloud service to record personal conversations; significant privacy concerns serve as barriers to adoption by individual and enterprise customers.

H-SB015.1-004
Privacy Protecting Analytics for the Internet of Things

HSHQDC-15-C-00020 HSHQDC-15-R-00017-H-SB015.1-004-0013-I
(HSHQDC-15-R-00017 Phase I)
Privacy-based Analytics for Weather and Radiological Emergencies

RAM Laboratories, Inc.
591 Camino de la Reina
Suite 610
San Diego, CA 92108-3108

05/01/2015
to
10/31/2015
$99,999.34

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is looking for solutions that not only provide enhanced security and safety by leveraging sensors found on the Internet of Things (IoT) but also suppress data that facilitates the accumulation, processing, and characterization of information that make it attributable to individuals. To address these needs, RAM Laboratories proposes to develop Emergency Response Watch (ER-Watch), a suite of solutions that discern important events and actionable information for first responders with privacy services that suppress user-specific information. This tool consists of apps that extract specific readings from sensors prevalent on commonly used mobile devises, such as phones and tablets. The apps then generate event notifications that are tagged with Pedigree and Provenance information such as location, timestamp, and identifier information. ER-Watch uses back-end cloud processing to determine "watch" and "warning" regions for certain events by using analytics and data clustering algorithms. The Phase I project focuses on tornado warnings and warnings of radiological events. A key facet of the ER-Watch apps and processing are their incorporation of Privacy by Design (PbD) processes within its design. These PbD principles are used to (1) obfuscate device/user identifiers through the use of pseudo-randomization, (2) separate authentication and event analytical processing mechanisms to separate identify information from raw and derived sensor, and (3) use event processing to hide precise location and time tag and thwart track reconstruction activities. The Phase I project will be rapidly prototypes using existing apps previously developed by RAM Laboratories for sensor extraction and messaging.

H-SB015.1-007
Canine Mounted Track and Transmit Device

HSHQDC-15-C-00028 HSHQDC-15-R-00017-H-SB015.1-007-0012-I
(HSHQDC-15-R-00017 Phase I)
CanineTRAKR: Tracking Recorder Advanced K9 Radio

MNW Tech
11527 Corte Playa Las Brisas
San Diego, CA 92124-1547

05/05/2015
to
11/04/2015
$99,985.00

The purpose of this project is to develop the CanineTRAKR system - a low-profile, ruggedized canine mounted audio, video, and location tracking system. The data collected is date, time, and location stamped and stored locally as well as transmitted real-time to the canine handler and the command center coordination, location marking, and remote canine control. The CanineTRAKR system will be designed to incorporate the latest technology to meet the specification requirements while allowing for easy integration of future technologies to improve the design as the development proceeds through Phase I, into Phase II, and onto commercialization. Furthermore, customized software is needed to control the various modules as well as for the handler mobile device and the command coordination center to display the real-time video, location tracking information, and other sensor data. At the conclusion of Phase I, MNW Tech will have demonstrated the optimal design for the CanineTRAKR system to wirelessly transmit real-time video and tracking information from a canine mounted device. We will have identified the key components for the different subsystem modules and validated these modules meet the requirement specifications in the solicitation to overcome the technical challenges. In addition to a large opportunity for the CanineTRAKR in Police K9 units, it is expected that the CanineTRAKR would be an invaluable tool used by search and rescue teams as well as the Federal Government with several thousand canine units in every branch of the U.S. Military, and thousands more used throughout the Homeland Security Enterprise.

H-SB016.1-005
Internet of Things (IoT) Low-Cost Flood Inundation Sensor

HSHQDC-16-C-00075 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-005-0018-I
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase I)
Real-time Flood Forecasting and Reporting

Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510

05/03/2016
to
11/02/2016
$99,997.47

To address the DHS need to rapidly predict, detect, and react to ever-changing flood conditions, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Real-time Flood Forecasting and Reporting (RAFFAR) system based on a combination of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) wireless networking technologies and existing proprietary POC sensors. The system will offer a means to deploy a scalable mesh network across a broad area that allows sensors to relay information through open data exchange standards to an operation center for monitoring of both flood conditions and heavy rain conditions that serve as predictors of floods. After collection, the information will be relayed to handheld devices through wireless emergency alerting. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of RAFFAR by building and testing a preliminary prototype network and performing an analysis of a full-size network roll-out. Currently at Technology Readiness Level (TRL)-4, at the end of the resultant Phase I effort, the RAFFAR system will reach TRL-6. In Phase II, POC plans to manufacture sufficient sensors to deploy a 100+ unit network for outdoor testing. The successful completion of this project at the end of Phase III will benefit the nation in both government and commercial sectors by providing real-time disaster data so that first responders can react appropriately based on the best possible information. Commercial applications for this technology include applications in disaster prevention and recovery, manufacturing and equipment monitoring, and irrigation management.

H-SB016.1-007
Real-Time Assessment of Resilience and Preparedness

HSHQDC-16-C-00070 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-007-0008-I
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase I)
OpenWatch: An Architecture for Scalable Resiliency Assessment

InferLink Corporation
2361 Rosecrans Ave., Suite 348
El Segundo, CA 90245-2901

05/02/2016
to
11/01/2016
$100,000.00

In this project, we propose to develop software that employs open source information to assess a community's resilience and preparedness. The goal is challenging because current technology does not scale well due to the heterogeneity of the problem. Specifically, the heterogeneity of the data, as well as the heterogeneity of the assessment process makes it time-consuming to develop extractors for harvesting relevant data, as well as to develop decision methods for performing resiliency/preparedness assessments. Our work in phase I will include identifying detailed use cases and sample data, along with an ontology for the application. We will also develop an end-to-design for a system, OpenWatch, that we will prototype in Phase II. Finally, we will develop machine learning technology to deal with the heterogeneity problem, including algorithms for semi-automatically developing extractors and semi-automatically developing design surfaces for resiliency assessment. The results of the project will include an open-source software architecture for resiliency assessment, upon which a commercial resiliency-assessment service can be built. In addition, aggregated resilience-related data can be repurposed for multiple commercial verticals, including in particular the insurance industry. The technology developed will also contribute to developing a cloud-based service for Web aggregation that can be rapidly customized for new verticals.

H-SB016.1-008
Using Social Media to Support Timely and Targeted Emergency Response Actions

HSHQDC-16-C-00060 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-008-0010-I
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase I)
Real-time Information Contextual Correlation and Analysis

Physical Optics Corporation
Electro-Optics Systems Division
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510

05/02/2016
to
11/01/2016
$99,993.99

To address the DHS need for a new data analytics engine to correlate social media comments and activity with incident command data, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Real-time Information Contextual Correlation and Analysis (RICCA) software system based on Bayesian analytics, multiresolution event context hypercube (MECH) representation, and multi-source data analysis and fusion using social media ontologies and emergency management ontologies. RICCA offers automatic and real-time extraction of multiple external factors relevant to an event of interest from social media outlets, to improve incident command's situational awareness and understanding. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of RICCA by developing a set of operational scenarios, identifying the external factors in social media and operational incident data, developing core analytics modules, and implementing algorithms to measure performance and improvements. In Phase II, POC plans to mature the RICCA prototype and correlation and analysis algorithms to support a pilot protocol by which a social media feed is correlated with operational incident data. The successful completion of this project at the end of Phase III will benefit the nation in both government and commercial sectors by improving the situational awareness and decision-making capabilities of incident commands and significantly improving the effectiveness of response decisions and actions. Commercial applications for this technology range from personal use to business intelligence, news gathering, trend analysis, and data gathering applications.

H-SB016.1-008
Using Social Media to Support Timely and Targeted Emergency Response Actions

HSHQDC-16-C-00066 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-008-0028-I
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase I)
Joint Modeling of Social Media and CAD Data for Crisis Management Decision Support

UtopiaCompression Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd.
Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064-1818

05/02/2016
to
11/01/2016
$99,988.18

Archived computer-aided dispatch (CAD) data has been beneficial for post-event analysis and continual improvement processes. First responder CAD data represents a potential data set that can be exploited by recently-emergent big data techniques. The criticality of first responder missions increases the importance of such efforts: the impact of CAD data analytics could be directly related to lives saved. Emergency management organizations are well aware of the power of social media (SM) to assist and improve response efforts. However, most are ill-equipped to ingest, process, and utilize in an intelligent, quantitative, and effective way, the enormous amount of SM data available. UtopiaCompression Corporation (UC) proposes to develop and deliver a comprehensive solution that can jointly analyze CAD and social media data in real time. This tool is intended to provide situational awareness, advanced analytics, visualization and decision support for crisis management, by detecting and classifying emergency events, and providing first responders with suggested courses of action. In Phase I, UC will (a) identify at least three emergency management scenarios for which the proposed tools may be applied; (b) develop its novel event detection, localization and tracking algorithm; (c) evaluate the developed system on candidate CAD/SM data sets to demonstrate proof-of-concept. The developed tool is expected to have significant commercial applications in a diverse range of tasks including automated threat assessment, disaster/crisis management and emergency response.

H-SB016.1-009
Blockchain Applications for Homeland Security Analytics

HSHQDC-16-C-00080 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-009-0009-I
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase I)
Blockchain Platform for Multiple Blockchains, Applications, and Analytics

BlockCypher
652 Sea Anchor Dr #2202
Redwood City, CA 94063-2894

05/02/2016
to
11/01/2016
$99,946.82

The purpose of this proposal is to provide a platform for multiple blockchains, applications, and the analysis of blockchain transactional data. BlockCypher has already built a blockchain infrastructure that supports a multitude of applications, e.g., identify management, internet-of-things (IoT), notary, embeddable assets, predictive analytics, etc. - and runs both closed and open blockchains on the same infrastructure. BlockCypher's platform currently supports the ability to embed encrypted data on any blockchain, predict which transactions will be accepted, and hosts a multitude of security measures that can provide a significant value proposition for homeland security applications. BlockCypher also stores and handles massive amounts of public blockchain transaction data (multiple terabytes) in distributed and redundant data stores. BlockCypher currently uses the data to do real-time predictive risk assessment and analysis. BlockCypher's proposal for Phase I is to design and prototype an analytical framework that allows DHS to utilize the data which is already being captured by BlockCypher and to make it actionable.

H-SB016.1-009
Blockchain Applications for Homeland Security Analytics

HSHQDC-16-C-00079 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-009-0014-I
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase I)
Enhanced Blockchain Trust Services

RAM Laboratories, Inc.
591 Camino de la Reina
Suite 610
San Diego, CA 92108-3108

05/02/2016
to
11/01/2016
$100,000.00

Several security shortfalls associated with the Internet of Things (IoTs) are related to key management and distributions, which are used to encrypt, sign and authenticate messages and remotely manage participating applications. These challenges are especially difficult to address in disadvantaged, intermittent and low latency (DIL) environments, such as those faced by first responders, where the ability to exchange keys to authenticate users, devices, and messages may be thwarted by the lack of connectivity. Blockchain technologies can address they shortfalls through the used of secure decentralized computing ledgers that update distributed nodes with ongoing consensus truth states. RAM Laboratories is proposing, within the context of a prototype ecosystem, to build on Blockchain concepts and develop an innovative set of Enhanced Blockchain Trust Services (EBTS) for use by first responders on attestation, signature generation, and authentication. EBTS services are pioneering in that they both establish a unique fingerprint for the target device by utilizing device fingerprint information extracted from hardware sensors, the device software configuration, and the network configuration parameters, and trust attestations computed by neighboring nodes and transaction partners in the distributed network. Attestations and keys generation from hardware, software, trust scores and network parameters alleviate the need for protected identity key storage and device re-keying. The proposed EBTS solution will also be integrated with network defense environments to provide enhanced capabilities for handling security polices, information security, network security, and user privacy.

H-SB016.1-010
Remote Identity Proofing Alternatives to Knowledge Based Authentication/Verification

HSHQDC-16-C-00064 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-010-0007-I
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase I)
Remote Identity Proofing Methods and Analysis

PreID Inc.
37 Park Dr
Atherton, CA 94027-4011

05/02/2016
to
11/01/2016
$99,476.22

The Internet and mobile technologies has brought on a rapid transition from doing business "in-person" to remote. Knowing the identity of the individual at this other end of the wire is at the very foundation of trust and security of this new world. Traditional methods to prove identity, such as driver's licenses, were designed for "in-person" use, not the digital economy. Instead, the Internet has turned to use Knowledge-Based Methods for remote identity-proofing, but the explosion of data breaches and the underground market selling Personally Identifiable Information (PII) has rendered that approach risky and weak. New methods and technologies are needed. Notably, there are new tools such as biometrics and sensor-laden smartphones just now gaining mass consumer deployment and acceptance, and also a critical-mass in membership of social networks such as Facebook and LinkedIn which could form the basis of an answer to this problem. The goal from this Phase I research is to rigorously review five or more such new approaches to identity-proofing, specifically to determine for each the technical strengths and weaknesses (security, privacy, accuracy), and commercial feasibility (cost, time to market, consumer acceptance). The immediate benefit to the Department of Homeland Security will be as technical guidance document for any program which requires remote identity-proofing, but longer term the commercial potential for a commercial/government partnership is to redefine strong digital identity is mission critical in the future of the Internet.

H-SB016.1-010
Remote Identity Proofing Alternatives to Knowledge Based Authentication/Verification

HSHQDC-16-C-00052 HSHQDC-16-R-00012-H-SB016.1-010-0012-I
(HSHQDC-16-R-00012 Phase I)
Practical Alternatives for Population-Scale Remote Identity Proofing

Pomian & Corella, LLC
5120 Marconi Ave Apt 26
Carmichael, CA 95608-4281

05/02/2016
to
11/01/2016
$99,674.82

The purpose of this multiphase SBIR project is to identify, define and demonstrate a range of alternatives to knowledge-based verification for remote identity proofing. Knowledge-based verification is becoming less and less secure due to the increased availability to fraudsters of personally identifiable information. The project will expand the multidimensional space of remote identity proofing solutions by considering innovations including the use of EMV chip cards as identity tokens, the use of federated identity protocols for directly conveying validated attributes from identity providers to relying parties, and the use of persistent web storage available in modern browsers to store cryptographic credentials carrying validated attributes. Five or more solutions will be selected from the expanded multidimensional space, analyzed, and ranked according to the identity assurance, privacy and user experience they provide. The most promising ones will be demonstrated by building prototypes. It is anticipated that the project will ultimately result in commercial products implementing remote identity proofing solutions usable by Federal Agencies to verify the identity and eligibility of citizens seeking government services, as well as by state, local and tribal governments for similar purposes. The same commercial products will also be usable in the private sector for applications such as remote loan issuance or remote application for credit cards. Eliminating the use knowledge-based verification will make identity theft much more difficult and will increase privacy by reducing the incentives to collect personally identifiable information by legal or illegal means.

H-SB017.1-001
Enhanced Agent Situational Awareness in Dismounted, Low Light/Adverse Conditions

HSHQDC-17-C-00026 HSHQDC-17-R-00010-H-SB017.1-001-0002-I
(HSHQDC-17-R-00010 Phase I)
Infrared and Optical Wilderness Location and Surveillance System

Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510

05/01/2017
to
10/31/2017
$99,713.46

To address the DHS need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new InfraRed and Optical Wilderness Location and Surveillance (IROWL) system based on the unique integration of a handheld spotting device, display, and compact multispectral zoom optics. The lightweight handheld device includes surveillance optics, infrared sensors, and display electronics to enable Border Patrol Agents to detect, identify, recognize, and track humans while on the move under low-light and adverse conditions. The onboard computing software supports real-time image stabilization, image enhancement, and via integrated components enables computation of target coordinates, making it a complete system. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate feasibility by design, modeling, assembly, and testing of a preliminary prototype. It will result in an illustrated hardware design that depicts the necessary requirements and technical solution including a system architecture, a hardware design, and on-board computing software design, and mock-up of the IROWL hardware units. Working with input from Border Patrol Agents, we will define and describe a general usage as a starting point for proposed Phase II testing and demonstration of two operational prototypes. In Phase II, POC will build a functional prototype for testing and demonstration with Border Patrol. The successful completion of this project at the end of Phase III will benefit the nation in both government and commercial sectors by improving Border Patrol's ability to safely and effectively monitor U.S. borders. Commercial applications for this technology include geo-location, spotting, and tracking on wilderness terrain for professional and recreational pursuits.

H-SB017.1-006
Wearable Chemical Sensor Badge

HSHQDC-17-C-00043 HSHQDC-17-R-00010-H-SB017.1-006-0002-I
(HSHQDC-17-R-00010 Phase I)
A Wearable Toxic Chemical Sensor Badge

Design West Technolgies, Inc
2701 Dow Ave
Tustin, CA 92780-7209

05/01/2017
to
10/31/2017
$99,982.65

Due to the high probability of exploiting common toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a weapon there is an increasing demand for rapid chemical detection technologies. A sensor that alerts the user of the presence of TICs independent of human interpretation is highly desirable. Furthermore, the sensor should be configurable as either a wearable badge or button so that it can be integrated as part of a first responders uniform. To address the difficulty associated with miniaturizing conventional detection technologies, Design West Technologies, Inc. (DWT) proposes a chemiresistor sensor array for the development of a wearable sensor badge that detects multiple TICs. This approach leverages the unique and rapid electrical response of carbon nanotubes. Notable advantages include high sensitivity and selectivity, low power consumption, and ease of miniaturization. During Phase I, DWT will optimize the sensor formulations and detection algorithm to detect a representative TIC in various environmental conditions. Feasibility of detecting the representative TIC in the presence of an interfering gas, secondhand smoke, will also be demonstrated. A 3D model of the proposed wearable sensor badge will be developed, and any miniaturization-related performance tradeoffs will be addressed and mitigated. A miniaturized chemiresistor sensor array would lead to a low cost, compact and lightweight wearable sensor badge. This wearable sensor technology is well aligned with the critical missions of DHS, and would find applications in one or more operational components of the DHS.

H-SB017.1-006
Wearable Chemical Sensor Badge

HSHQDC-17-C-00045 HSHQDC-17-R-00010-H-SB017.1-006-0003-I
(HSHQDC-17-R-00010 Phase I)
A Versatile Wearable Chemical Sensor using Ultrasound gas sensing technology (CMUTs)

Aromatix Technologies
2033 Gateway Place
Suite 577
San Jose, CA 95110-3709

05/02/2017
to
11/01/2017
$100,000.00

We will develop a compact solid-state gas sensor using a novel ultrasound technology called CMUTs, invented by renowned Stanford Professor B. Khuri-Yakub two decades earlier. Although its application in gas sensors was known for some time, its challenges have so far prevented its commercialization. Aromatix Technologies has identified solution to each of these challenges, which are the subjects of research in this project. Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transceivers, or CMUTs, have the highest sensitivity of all gas sensors to date. Using polymer coating, the ultrasound devices use gravimetric sensing principle to detect the concentration of a target gas. However its selectivity is moderate compared to technologies such as infrared or gas chromatography. Aromatix Technologies has perfected the Machine Learning algorithm for ultrasound systems for gas sensing to circumvent the issue; we have demonstrated that sensitivity and selectivity can both be achieved using Machine learning algorithms. CMUT's size, low cost, low power and the ability to functionalize the sensor with targeted polymers make it an ideal candidate for wearable chemical sensor badge. However there are a couple of challenges which we need to overcome for its commercialization: charge buildup in CMUTs degrading its sensitivity with time, poor selectivity, high sensitivity to humidity and temperature. We have assembled the best talents in the industry in each field to address these issues. The details are discussed in the Research Plan. We have done the necessary groundwork to ensure success and we are confident that we can commercialize the technology in six to eight quarters.

H-SB018.1-002
Cell Phone Location Finder for Maritime and Remote Search and Rescue

70RSAT18C00000029 FY18.1-H-SB018.1-002-0002-I
(FY18.1 Phase I)
Remote Phone Locator for Improved Emergency Rescue

Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510

05/02/2018
to
11/01/2018
$149,998.88

To address the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) need for a cell phone location finder for maritime and remote search and rescue (SAR), Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new REmote Phone Locator for Improved Emergency Rescue (REPLIER). REPLIER leverages novel techniques recently developed at POC to extend the range of cellular communications and integrate commercial cellular communications into deployed tactical radios. Innovations in REPLIER enable localization of persons in distress from over 100 km away, with resolution of 50 m or better. REPLIER is intrinsically able to discriminate between the target and other cell phone devices, avoiding disruption of traditional cell phone services or violation of the privacy of other cell phone users. REPLIER is small and lightweight for portability and ease of integration with first responders existing equipment, such as Rescue 21. REPLIER features Ingress Protection (IP)-67 packaging to provide durability and compatibility for a wide range of maritime and remote land border environments. In Phase I, POC will develop a REPLIER proof of concept and demonstrate the technical feasibility for a range of use cases and concepts of operations, reaching technology readiness level TRL-4. In Phase II, POC plans to develop and demonstrate a TRL-6 prototype, in preparation for transition/commercialization in Phase III. The successful completion of this project at the end of Phase III will benefit the nation in both government and commercial sectors by providing an effective means to track cellular signals for SAR operations.

H-SB018.1-002
Cell Phone Location Finder for Maritime and Remote Search and Rescue

70RSAT18C00000028 FY18.1-H-SB018.1-002-0021-I
(FY18.1 Phase I)
Advanced Receiver for Distressed Emitter Localization (ARDEL)

Toyon Research Corporation
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117-3021

05/02/2018
to
11/01/2018
$150,000.00

A majority of U.S. adults own a cell phone and are inclined to use it in emergency situations to call for assistance. Unfortunately, in areas where the density of cell towers is low, such as in rural and off-shore environments, the ability of the wireless network to geolocate the origin of the wireless signal is poor to non-existent. Under the proposed effort, Toyon Research Corporation will develop a system to geolocate the source of radio-frequency (RF) emissions from distressed cellular calls. The system will not disrupt other users and will not require personal information to detect, identify and geolocate the emitter of interest. The proposed emitter localization system has a number of potential commercial applications including search and rescue operations and interference localization, such as in the case of GPS/GNSS jammers. During the Phase I effort, Toyon will develop the system architecture and demonstrate the performance of the system using a modular navigation and communication transceiver developed on prior contracts. Lessons learned from the demonstration will be incorporated into a preliminary prototype design, which will be finalized, built and demonstrated during the follow-on Phase II effort. The emitter locator will include one or more cooperative sensor nodes that communicate with each other without disrupting the wireless network. Each sensor node will be small, lightweight, portable and durable. A mission planning software package will be included to enable the operators to visualize and understand the expected performance of the system during operation.

H-SB018.1-003
Device to Detect Interference of Communications Systems

70RSAT18C00000019 FY18.1-H-SB018.1-003-0001-I
(FY18.1 Phase I)
Miniature Intelligent Spectral Analyzer

Physical Optics Corporation
1845 West 205th Street
Torrance, CA 90501-1510

05/02/2018
to
11/01/2018
$149,998.69

To address the DHS need to rapidly detect radio interference of critical radio frequency (RF) communications channels utilized by first responders, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Miniature Intelligent Spectral Analyzer (MISCAN) device based on a combination of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic components in a custom software-defined configuration along with intelligent anomaly detection algorithms. The system will alert first responders by visual, audible, or haptic means so they can carry out back-up, mitigation, and reporting procedures. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of MISCAN by building and testing a preliminary prototype device and performing real-world testing using DHS reference interference waveforms. At the end of the resultant Phase I effort, the MISCAN system will reach technology readiness level (TRL)-5 and POC will submit a detailed plan to complete the system including interference geo-location capability and to ensure reaching a sub-$500 price point. In Phase II, POC plans to manufacture and field final systems for evaluation by first responders identified during the Phase I effort and will prepare the MISCAN design for low-cost manufacturing. The successful completion of this project at the end of Phase III will benefit the nation in both government and commercial sectors by providing reliable radio communications for first responders and other essential personnel. Commercial applications for this technology include applications in disaster prevention and recovery, networking and information technology, and security and surveillance.

H-SB018.1-008
Automated & Scalable Analysis of Mobile & IoT Device Firmware

70RSAT18C00000024 FY18.1-H-SB018.1-008-0008-I
(FY18.1 Phase I)
Automated and Scalable Analysis of Mobile and IoT Device Firmware

RAM Laboratories, Inc.
591 Camino de la Reina
Suite 610
San Diego, CA 92108-3108

05/02/2018
to
11/01/2018
$149,999.85

As Internet of Things (IoT) and mobile devices become increasingly popular and widely used, the security of the firmware running on these devices is paramount. However, due to the lack of an efficient and scalable analysis framework, combined with the increasing pressure to get products to market as quickly as possible, the software running on these devices is never properly checked for security vulnerabilities and backdoors. This results in a large potential attack surface, with millions of devices owned by individuals, enterprises, and government agencies that could be exploited by external adversaries. To fill this gap RAM Laboratories is proposing Firmalytics, a modular and scalable framework that automatically analyzes firmware images for security vulnerabilities, backdoors, and malware. The results, along with any metadata gathered about the firmware, are added to a database to support a correlation engine used for identifying groups of similar firmware. This grouping helps give contextual information of what vulnerabilities might be common among the firmware, allowing for us to prioritize vulnerabilities to search for when scanning the image. Additionally, our framework supports the use of more advanced vulnerability detection methods that rely on complex techniques such as symbolic execution. While these techniques have trouble scaling, we can utilize the correlation engine to intelligently sample images from the firmware database to analyze and potentially find 0-day vulnerabilities that have yet to be discovered. We can then verify which similar images might also be vulnerable and report the results back to the end user.

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC040061 04110136
(FY04.1 Phase I)
MEMS Chemicapacitive Sensor System for the Detection of Low Vapor Pressure TICS

Seacoast Science, Inc.
2151 Las Palmas Drive
Suite C
Calrsbad, CA 92011-1575

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,998.00

Seacoast Science proposes to fabricate a detector system for the detection and identification of Low Vapor Pressure (LVP) Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICS). The proposed system will include a Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) chemical sensor array, sampling pump and a MEMS stacked hotplate preconcentrator optimized for the selective and sensitive detection of a variety of TICS that pose a threat to homeland security when in the hand of terrorists. Because of the long list and diverse nature of these compounds we propose a flexible system that allows for multiple modes of operation. The system will be designed for wall mounted or handheld operation and samples can be introduced by sampling ambient air or by direct input from a swipe. Ultimately this program will yield a small, rugged, lightweight, low-power system designed for continuous operation when wall mounted or handheld battery operation. Our MEMS chemicapacitor technology utilizes an array of surface micromachined capacitors optimized for LVP TICS such as pesticides, explosives and mercury. Our MEMS preconcentrator provides high throughput and high collection efficiency while using minimum power. In Phase I we will test our sensors and preconcentrator by exposing them to LVP TICS at appropriate concentrations under a range of environmental conditions.

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC040052 04110982
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Continuous Immunoassay for the Accurate Detection of Low Vapor Pressure TICs

Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,999.00

There is a clear and growing need to detect and monitor for highly dangerous releases of toxic industrial compounds (TICs) for the protection of the general public. Current detection and monitoring devices are not adequate to protect against unwanted releases of low vapor TICs because of the high detection sensitivity required. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to provide an improved new generation of point detectors to warn of the presence of low vapor pressure TICs. These point detectors will be based on an emerging IOS technology that uses continuous membrane displacement immunoassay and that has been shown to provide highly sensitive detection of organic pollutants in water. High sensitivity is achieved by using innovative methods to concentrate the target analyte and by employing highly luminescent Quantum Dot labels for detection. This technology will be extended to the detection of vapor phase low volatility TICs through the addition of an efficient air sampling system coupled with an innovative flow assay system. The advantages of this methodology will be demonstrated via the design and evaluation of a laboratory prototype point detection instrument. In Phase II, the methodology will be expanded to enable simultaneous assay of multiple chemical agents.

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC040030 04111161
(FY04.1 Phase I)
QCM Sensors for Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals

Palo Alto Sensor Technology Innovation
879 Newell Place
Palo Alto, CA 94303-

04/01/2004
to
08/26/2004
$61,966.64

The development of highly sensitive, fast Fourier transform (FFT) detected, frequency encoded quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) arrays is proposed for the detection of low vapor pressure (LVP) chemical components, including toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). The development of highly sensitive resonant mass detectors will be an important step in enabling the design of inexpensive

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040045 04110101
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Marine Asset Tag Tracking Systems

Tera Research Inc
1344 Bordeuax Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089-

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$98,689.00

The key challenges to the envisioned Marine Asset Tag Tracking System are: 1) Establishing a reliable communication link to each container when they are stacked together, and 2) Determining the position of each container within the stack. Reliable communication is difficult because of the line of sight obstruction from an external radio to the tag when the containers are stacked at a terminal or on a ship. A robust communication approach is proposed to provide highly reliable communication links to stacked containers. In addition, a maximum likelihood algorithm is proposed to determine the location of the containers within a stack. Experiments are proposed to validate these two innovative concepts. These approaches will be integrated in the overall Marine Asset Tag Tracking System.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040050 04110125
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System (MATTS)

Information Systems Laboratories
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121-2722

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,916.00

The objective is to demonstrate by analysis and modeling that a MARINE ASSET TAG TRACKING SYSTEM (MATTS) is feasible and capable of satisfying key detection and security-related requirements in a marine shipping environment. ISL's unique approach couples proven features of conventional Local Transmit/Receive Network (LTRN) architectures with innovative tag technologies to address the most difficult aspects of single-container access and localization in multiple environments. Development tasks include design of an overall architecture, container tag trade studies, and LTRN design. An optimized MATTS architecture will be developed by incorporating innovative tag design, interactive tag technology, and modified tag reader designs into an overall system definition that addresses marine shipping operations and affordability concerns. Innovative tag designs and communications techniques for accessing and localizing deeply stacked containers will be analyzed. A Local Transmit/Receive Network architecture capable of reliably communicating with all stacked containers, adjunct sensors and data centers will be configured a design based on ISL's proven tag Reader product line, incorporating COTS components identified during trade studies. The architecture will be designed to control secure access and communication between tags and remote Data Center(s), enabling on-demand query access and container communications to DHS.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040058 04110199
(FY04.1 Phase I)
VIPMobile Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

VIPMobile, Inc.
120 Montgomery Street
Suite 2000
San Francisco, CA 94104-4303

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,999.00

VIPMobile has developed an inter-cargo tracking and monitoring system for shipping containers that provides a modular, plug-and-play, scalable architecture for container monitoring either afloat or ashore. The VIPMobile solution incorporates state-of-the-art data transfer technologies and provides a flexible architecture that allows shipping operators and seaports to plug-and-play different modalities but using a common or standard communications protocol.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040046 04110368
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Cargo Active Tracking Systems (CATS)

Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building 4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626-4532

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,779.00

The objective of the Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency (HSARPA04.1-005) effort is to develop and prototype a "Tag System" for maritime shipping containers. The tracking information and status of a shipping container's tag system is performed on a global level in a variety of locations: 1) Pre-staged stacked on the dock; 2) Stored on-board of a transport ship; 3) Off-loaded from the transport ship onto the U.S.; 4) In-transit from the dock to shipping terminals. Our approach incorporates the stacking of electronic components with radio frequency (RF) devices to be placed on and around current and future maritime cargo containers. Stacking enables an innovative concept called "container laddering" that automatically creates a fully reconfigurable network topology of all container positions. The container topology reconfigures automatically as the container placement changes. This enables full monitoring of all containers regardless of their placement, even if stacked and stored below the hull of the ship. All required ship and container sensor information could be monitored and addressed from a designated command and control data center established by Homeland Security. Our investigation will lead to the development and implementation of a prototype in Phase II.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040060 04110457
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Innovative Tracking System for Monitoring of Stacked Cargo Containers

Scientific Application & Research Associates, Inc.
6300 Gateway Drive
Cypress, CA 90630-4844

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,997.00

Present-day transponders require a clear line-of-sight with the sky, both to track their position with GPS and to relay status information to an uplink. This requirement precludes the ability to track asset tags whose containers are deeply stacked on or below deck. SARA is pleased to offer an innovative solution to overcome the line-of-sight requirement by developing an asset-tag-tracking system based on SARA-proprietary broadcasting methodologies that are resistant to the signal-degrading effects common in RF- and IR-based systems (such as multi-path reflections and attenuation through metal). The proposed system will be able to monitor simultaneously hundreds to thousands of tags in near-real-time, pinpoint any tag's position to within one meter (without a technician needing to walk on-deck and "triangulate" with a hand-held unit), and perform these functions securely and reliably no matter how deeply stacked the container might be. In Phase I of this proposal, SARA will design the architecture of the system and demonstrate the salient features of the broadcast technology. The results of the design and demonstration will clear a low-risk path to a fully-functional system demonstration in Phase II.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040047 04110591
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Ultra Wideband (UWB) Networked Wireless Tags for Marine Asset Tracking

Gaea Corporation
3631 E. 1st Street
Suite 7
Long Beach, CA 90803-2793

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,402.00

We propose a novel ultra wideband (UWB) wireless tag system capable of tracking shipping containers while being loaded, closely stacked above or below decks, or being moved within shipping terminals. Each container has one or more tags that use UWB wireless technology to form an ad-hoc mesh network with its neighboring containers. In addition, each tag can measure the distance to its neighboring tags. Therefore, the information from a container buried deep in a stack of containers can be relayed by intermediate tags and emerge at the "edges" of the container stack, which have clear visibility to the local transmitter/receiver net. As each tag has the capability of communicating with, and measuring its distance to, the local transceiver net, multiple "edge" tags provide redundancy in getting the information into and out of a stack of containers reliably. The identity and distance information from the container network is relayed by the local transceiver net, to a central network controller which solves the distance/ID constraint information to provide a unique x,y,z coordinate for each container. The central controller then allows for retransmission of this data via satellite to a remote Data Center.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040048 04110604
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Embedded Inertial State Tags for Marine Asset Tracking

iControl Incorporated
3235 Kifer Road
Suite 260
Santa Clara, CA 95051-0815

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$96,945.00

To provide a complete system for tracking and monitoring marine assets, the proposed effort will design an RF tag that utilizes low-cost, embedded microprocessors and accelerometers for calculating the inertial states of the container while onboard the ship. The initial states are determined at the time of loading by differential GPS measurements taken by the on-ship gateway and the in-terminal gateway. RF links from the tag to the gateway will transmit updated onboard location and sensor information for upload to control centers located onboard, in the terminals, and at remote sites. The upload frequency and real-time event threshholds are remotely programmable. The data received by the control center will be displayed in both graphical and textual views for rapid report generation and analysis.

H-SB04.1-007
Ship Compartment Inspection Device

NBCHC040105 04110036
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Handheld Lobster Eye X-Ray Inspection Device

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,997.00

The war against terrorism requires the capability to inspect cargo through the walls of ship and boat compartments. For this purpose, the U.S. Coast Guard is seeking a handheld instrument that can accurately analyze and visualize material hidden from view behind walls and bulkheads. This inspection device must not endanger Coast Guard personnel or hidden illegal migrants, must be simple to operate, and must minimize disruption of commercial and private property. In response to this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new handheld monolithic Lobster Eye X-ray Inspection Device (LEXID) for real-time, through-wall high-resolution Compton backscatter X-ray inspection over an entire 2D field-of-view. LEXID's true focusing X-ray optics simultaneously focus and acquire ballistic Compton backscattering photons from an entire large scene, irradiated by a wide cone beam from a miniature X-ray source. In Phase I, POC will design and develop a preliminary LEXID to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase II, a preproduction LEXID will be fabricated and tested. The immediate application of LEXID is detection by USCG personnel of illegal cargo, migrants, and other contraband aboard ships and boats.

H-SB04.1-007
Ship Compartment Inspection Device

NBCHC040092 04110056
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Associated Particle Imaging Shipboard Inspection System

Dynamics Technology, Inc.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd. Suite 300
Torrance, CA 90503-5610

04/01/2004
to
11/19/2004
$100,000.00

Dynamics Technology, Inc. (DTI) will develop a man-portable shipboard inspection system based on Associated Particle Imaging (API) technology, which can provide through-wall imaging behind bulkheads and within containers, along with automated threat material identification. The system builds on a decade of research by DTI and its partners, encompassing explosives identification, current government-sponsored R&D for related API applications, and recent progress in commercial components that supports rugged cost-effective systems development. Associated particle imaging is a neutron imaging technique that is particularly well suited to shipboard inspection because of its unique capability to provide: (1) man-portable inspection capability, (2) 3-D imagery to greatly enhance clutter suppression and improve automated material identification; and (2) penetration of steel bulkheads at high SNR. In Phase I, DTI will define operational requirements, perform an analytical feasibility assessment, provide supporting API measurements to validate the concept, identify advanced component tradeoffs, and define Phase II R&D requirements. In Phase II, we will develop advanced components and processing technology needed to achieve the functional and operational goals of a shipboard inspection system.

H-SB04.1-007
Ship Compartment Inspection Device

NBCHC040107 04111186
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Photogrammetric Compartment Modeling System

Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,995.00

It is critical to prevent terrorists, or other smugglers, from using the spaces, holds, and cargo containers aboard ships and boats, to smuggle contraband into our Nation. To date, most surveillance efforts have focused on vision through the wall systems; surprisingly little attention has been paid to identifying and locating possible hidden areas. A clear identification of these areas could significantly reduce the time expended on cargo searches. Intelligent Optical Systems proposes to develop a Photogrammetric Compartment Modeling System (PCMS) that will provide accurate 3-dimensional photogrammetric measurements. This system will integrate multiple images obtained through a digital camera, with laser diode-based distance measurements. A 3-D model of the ship, showing hidden areas, will be reconstructed using photogrammetric methods. This system will provide a comprehensive 3-D visualization model, highlighting hidden spaces and their volumes. IOS`s unique approach will enable the development of a high performance PCMS technology that can be used with existing handheld wall-penetrating devices to detect and locate clandestine cargo. In Phase I, IOS will design and develop a preliminary proof-of-concept model. In Phase II, IOS will integrate the PCMS technology into a 3-D compartment search and analysis system.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040099 04110738
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Improved Security Information Management for SCADA Intrusion Detection Systems

Expert Microsystems, Inc.
7932 Country Trail Drive, Suite 1
Orangevale, CA 95662-2120

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

Having achieved success for NASA equipment health monitoring applications, Expert Microsystems will develop new SCADA security solutions derived from its pattern recognition and decision support software. Using our patent pending "predict, detect, decide" techniques, we will develop an innovative decision support tool providing automated intrusion detection system (IDS) information management. We will train our software models using SCADA IDS data from the DOE's Western Area Power Administration (WAPA), which has electrical power transmission and distribution logs for fifteen U.S. states. We will conduct comprehensive analyses to characterize normal (no cyber intrusion) and abnormal (high risk of security breach) SCADA system behavior. Our approach will reduce the high number of "false positive" indications and will provide an effective method of filtering the vast amounts of data that limit the effectiveness of IDS solutions today. We will solicit design input from SCADA users in diverse operating environments and will review our prototype solution with DHS officials and WAPA to assure our Phase II/III approach is relevant to a broad base of critical infrastructure. Our commercial and government transition vision is to integrate our improved solution with market leading IDS software and provide comprehensive services supporting these infrastructure applications.

H-SB04.2-001
Cross-Domain Attack Correlation Technologies

NBCHC050005 0421200
(FY04.2 Phase I)
Intelligent Distributed Intrusion Detection via Collaboration

PnP Networks, Inc.
1525 Siesta Drive
Los Altos, CA 94024-6157

11/01/2004
to
05/15/2005
$99,000.00

We propose to design a cognitive, automated Distributed Intrusion Detection System that correlates IDS data from nodes across multiple administrative domains. In Phase I we will demonstrate that for multiple types of attacks across multiple administrative domains, such a system can detect incipient attacks and inhibit their success, where no single local IDS can be reasonably expected to do so. We will build on our existing multicast IP protocol, Collaboration Bus (CB), that enables local IDS data sharing. CB also allows remote connection to external listeners outside a LAN or local administrative domain. We will design and deploy a cognitive algorithm on a CB listener that uses Bayesian methods to correlate incoming IDS data and make diagnoses and judgments about action(s) to take. Using Emulab at the University of Utah, we will deploy CB on at least three independent target administrative domains together with a remote listener. We will deploy at least three known effective distributed attacks, and target them in an isolated environment at the target domains. We will run the cognitive listener and confirm that it has made appropriate judgments. We will generate innocuous traffic and confirm that the cognitive listener has not erroneously detected attacks.

H-SB04.2-002
Real-Time Malicious Code Identification

NBCHC050008 0421052
(FY04.2 Phase I)
MACE - Malicious Application Code Elimination

Avenda Systems
14125 Berry Hill Lane
Los Altos Hills, CA 94022-1840

11/01/2004
to
05/15/2005
$99,900.00

The IDS/IDP market will gain considerable traction as more organizations protect each application server instead of relying on network security. Proactive security as embodied in intrusion prevention will take a larger share of the market than reactive security as represented by intrusion detection. Avenda Systems proposes a solution called MACE (Malicious Application Code Elimination). It is a proactive real-time malicious code and payload anomaly detection system that focuses on application protocols; this will be extremely useful in defending against network attacks. This is a feature gap in the current IDS/IDP products. Avenda Systems has the expertise to develop a practical and highly effective malicious code detection system. MACE can be used by all organizations that have a computer network. The software modules developed in this project can be integrated into existing IPS/IDS solutions. The technologies employed in this product are practical and innovative and have not been implemented in commercially available comparable products. Organizations, both military and civilian enterprises, can use this system to defend their networks against attacks. Prototype development in Phase-I will provide the knowledge and foundation for building a complete product in Phase-II, and a commercially viable product in Phase-III.

H-SB04.2-002
Real-Time Malicious Code Identification

NBCHC050009 0421196
(FY04.2 Phase I)
Solidifying Malware Identification

Solidcore
3408 Hillview Ave Suite 180
Palo Alto, CA 94304-1321

11/01/2004
to
05/15/2005
$99,491.00

Solidcore's approach to malware-ID is to decouple packet payload analysis from the capture of packets in transit and the resulting necessity of (a) network-speed analysis, (b) analysis of large numbers of packets, only a minority of which contain malicious payloads.Phase I activities will consist of extending Solidcore's existing technology so that it can perform both of: - malware identification (malware-ID) for new and unknown attacks as well as known attacks, and - real-time generation and dissemination of attack identification data for existing security mechanisms.

H-SB04.2-002
Real-Time Malicious Code Identification

NBCHC050010 0421210
(FY04.2 Phase I)
Detection & Containment of Computer Epidemics Through Correlation of Communication Anomalies

Cs3 Inc.
5777 W Century Blvd
Suite 1185
Los Angeles, CA 90045-5600

11/01/2004
to
05/15/2005
$99,867.00

This Phase I SBIR project investigates the detection and mitigation of fast-spreading computer infections that we call network epidemics. We wish to avoid packet payload inspection for several reasons. For one, increasing use of encrypted communication makes it impossible to interpret the payload. Further, payload anomaly analysis introduces delays that can be unacceptable when stopping fast-spreading epidemics. In our project, detection of a network epidemic is based upon communication anomalies and the detection of similar shifts in behavior in a very large number of machines across the network. It is our hypothesis that epidemics can be detected by analyzing just communication patterns of the machines, without reference to packet payloads. Innovations of our approach include efficient traffic summaries that can store traffic data indefinitely. We also include sophisticated correlation features that make it possible to detect shifts in behavior of many machines across an entire network. Both exponential and slow spreading epidemics are discovered using this approach. The approach also generates filters for the traffic that spreads the infection thereby providing a defense. In Phase I, we validate the approach with a proof of concept prototype, and analyze the scalability issues of the approach to larger and faster networks.

H-SB04.2-005
Innovative Techniques for Concealed Weapons or Explosive Detection at a Distance

NBCHC050019 0421144
(FY04.2 Phase I)
Polychromic Imaging for Standoff Detection of Explosives and Weapons

Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217

11/01/2004
to
05/15/2005
$99,995.00

Terahertz (THz) radiation imaging and sensing is one of the most promising technologies for standoff detection of concealed threats. New THz sources and detectors are emerging on the commercial market. Existing methods for data processing and image construction, however, are either too cumbersome or fail to provide much of the required data for detecting concealed weapons and explosives. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes an innovative solution to these shortcomings. By integrating the use of polychromic imaging, advanced spectral analysis, synthetic aperture processing, fusion with conventional surveillance data, the IOS approach will produce real-time detection and imaging of concealed threats at a distance. What is novel in the proposed effort is that terahertz spectroscopy will be combined with conventional video imaging to enhance identification and to enable the tracking of potential threats at standoff distances. The potential benefits of this program are enormous, and include saving many lives, and neighborhoods. Commercial potential is in the $Billions. Images from security systems showing physiological details have caused some concern. IOS`s approach will eliminate this possible embarrassment. In Phase II, IOS will design a Phase II Prototype System to obtain Multispectral THz Reflection Images at distances of 50 m or greater.

H-SB04.2-005
Innovative Techniques for Concealed Weapons or Explosive Detection at a Distance

NBCHC050020 0421180
(FY04.2 Phase I)
A Novel Sensor for Concealed Object Detection

WaveBand Corporation
17152 Armstrong Ave
Irvine, CA 92614-5718

11/01/2004
to
05/15/2005
$99,816.00

Building on previous and ongoing research in concealed object detection (COD), WaveBand Corporation (WaveBand) proposes a novel approach specifically aimed at extended range of detection with a goal of up to 50 meters. Among various sensors tested and proposed to date, those working in the millimeter wave (MMW) spectral region have been proven to have the unique characteristics of providing adequate clothing penetration while attaining acceptable spatial resolution at a distance. The Phase I research effort will focus on the demonstration of the feasibility of the proposed approach through both prototype design and characterization as well as critical experimental demonstration of the system principle. The prototype of the system built in Phase II is expected to provide a detection range superior to all known COD systems while operating with minimal latency, regardless of atmospheric conditions, illumination, indoor or outdoor settings. Detection and rough classification functions are expected to be automated with minimal operator supervision needed. Utilizing mostly commercially available components, we expect the system to be affordable, even in low quantity production.

H-SB05.1-001
ADVANCED SAMPLE PROCESSING OF LIQUID, OR SOLID OR AEROSOL SAMPLES, OR A COMBINATION OF TWO OR THREE

NBCHC050122 0511164
(FY05.1 Phase I)
A NEW METHOD FOR SAMPLE PREPARATION DIRECTLY IN AEROSOLS

Chembionics, Inc.
7915 Silverton Avenue, Suite 307
San Diego, CA 92126-6348

06/01/2005
to
12/15/2005
$99,996.00

Rapid detection of pathogens in air and/or liquid samples is of paramount importance to minimize a potential threat of biological warfare agent attack as well appearance of emerging infectious diseases. Current methods, particularly those that target aerosols are determined by the efficiency and speed of sample preparation which comprises collection of air sample its conversion into a liquid sample and specific detection of pathogens using immuno-based method or those that rely on detection of nucleic acids characteristic for each pathogen. This project concerns a development of an innovative approach to separation of microorganisms in (bio)aerosols where the identification is performed directly in the gas-phase. The methodology is based on the ability to control and monitor the occurrence of biochemical reactions directly in air which enables recognition of pathogens through their specific surface markers or even using their characteristic gene sequences. The Phase I project will demonstrate feasibility of specific binding and separation of simulant microorganisms in air. The proposed sample preparation technology has a potential to be implemented in many different assay schemes which could include both air and liquid samples. Competitive advantages of this technology include: (i) direct and pathogen specific detection in air; (ii) detection time approaching near-real time monitoring; (iii) high sensitivity; and, (iv) low false positives.

H-SB05.1-001
ADVANCED SAMPLE PROCESSING OF LIQUID, OR SOLID OR AEROSOL SAMPLES, OR A COMBINATION OF TWO OR THREE

NBCHC050123 0511198
(FY05.1 Phase I)
Channel to Droplet Sample Extraction and Purification Using Electrowetting Device

Core MicroSolutions Inc.
1100 Glendon Avenue 17th Floor
Los Angeles, CA 90024-3588

06/01/2005
to
12/15/2005
$99,929.00

To develop advanced "channel-to-droplet" sample extraction and purification functions on a compact cartridge that is free of sensitive and complex microfluidic components, Core Microsolutions (CMSS) and Professor Sung Cho of the University of Pittsburgh propose to integrate Electrowetting-on-Dielectric (EWOD) droplet handling and in-droplet concentration capabilties with well proven channel-based separation methods to: a) separate target particles, b) extract the concentrated target particles in a mobile droplet, c) bifurcate the particle mix within the droplet using Dielectrophoretic separation methods for a 2nd level of concentration effects, and then d) drive the target-rich droplet to a sensing point or pipette extraction site. This proposed DHS work will develop the sample extraction and purification methods needed to complement CMSS' ongoing two year $1M NIH Biodefense Phase I grant that will produce the hardware and driving systems needed for novel bacteria immuno-capture and transduction on an EWOD sensing cartridge. This hybridization of channel and droplet-based sample handling on a generic slide cartridge will enable elegant transfer of channel-based separation products to an array of electronic, optical, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation. Comparisons in cost/performance will be made against existing methods at the end of Phase I.

H-SB05.1-001
ADVANCED SAMPLE PROCESSING OF LIQUID, OR SOLID OR AEROSOL SAMPLES, OR A COMBINATION OF TWO OR THREE

NBCHC050133 0511225
(FY05.1 Phase I)
Development of an advanced fluidic sample bioprocessor

Microchip Biotechnologies Inc
4059 Clipper Court
Fremont, CA 94538-6540

06/01/2005
to
12/15/2005
$100,000.00

This proposal describes a completely automated, NanoBioSentinel sample preparation instrument for biodefense. The NanoBioSentinel will contain two modules: a bead-based Sample Capture and Purification Module (SCPM) front-end and a microchip-based NanoBioProcessor Module. Built partly upon existing devices, the SCPM will use immunocapture and multi-dimensional purifications to process milliliter volumes into microliter volumes. Target organisms and agents are captured, concentrated, and purified on antibody-conjugated beads before lysis followed by bead-based nucleic acid binding and purification in the SCPM. Purified samples on beads are then moved into the NanoBioProcessor Module for fluidic sample processing in a microchip format. The NanoBioProcessor microchips have simple on-chip valves, pumps, and routers and can perform most chemistries. In Phase I, the sample preparation method to be evaluated will be sample preparation for a two-dimensional detection: (1) microscale-Real Time-PCR and (2) microchannel capillary array electrophoresis fragment sizing for confirmation of positives. While we develop the "backend" targeting these chemistries, the NanoBioSentinel will be able perform most chemistries and feed most analytical platforms. The technology will be the basis of sample preparation and analysis systems for pathogen detection, diagnostics and biodefense.

H-SB05.1-002
IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC GAMMA RAY DETECTORS

NBCHC050112 0511064
(FY05.1 Phase I)
Novel Quantum Dot Assisted Semiconductor Gamma Ray Detector

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

06/01/2005
to
12/15/2005
$99,989.00

To address homeland security needs, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Gamma Ray Quantum Dot Semiconductor Heterostructure (GammaDot) sensor system. This compact modular system consists of Pb quantum dot (Q-dot) heterostructure laser module, a photodiode module, and a smart electronics module. The Pb Q-dot laser module consists of a stack of heterostructure lasers, which generates a laser output proportional to the incident gamma ray photons captured by Pb atoms. The photodiode module detects this output, and the detected signals are processed and interpreted by the smart electronics module to extract gamma ray spectral data. The GammaDot sensor system will have excellent energy resolution of <0.1% of FWHM, far superior to other detector technologies. The multilayer design enables the GammaDot sensor system to scan a high-energy bandwidth of 20 keV to 3 meV with 90% of the efficiency of the NaI crystal standard. Room-temperature operation and the low operating power of the components result in a low system power consumption of <0.5 W. Mass manufacturing will produce a system that is volume-priced at a few hundred dollars. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept by building and testing a proof-of-concept GammaDot sensor. In Phase II POC plans to develop a fully functional prototype that will be integrated with a power supply and data acquisition system. When completed, the entire system could be functionalized into an inexpensive handheld gamma ray spectrometer or adapted into an array system for imaging - including baggage and cargo screening. GammaDot sensors can be adapted for detecting and imaging X-rays for biomedical applications. Because they can be pixilated and produced at ultralow cost, we foresee a large demand for these novel devices. Traditional high energy and nuclear physics experimental efforts could benefit from the compactness and position resolution of GammaDot sensor arrays. The unique arrangement of sensors in the system ensures unprecedented resolution and sensitivity over a wide energy bandwidth.

H-SB05.1-003
IMPROVED HIGH PURITY GERMANIUM COOLING MECHANISMS

NBCHC050120 0511043
(FY05.1 Phase I)
Miniature Long-Life Cooler for Portable Gamma Ray Detectors

Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120-4925

06/01/2005
to
12/15/2005
$99,994.98

This proposal describes a battery operated cryocooler to be used for cooling High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, commonly used for the detection of gamma rays. HPGe detectors are highly suitable for identifying nuclear materials, which is of great interest in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) applications. HPGe detectors need to operate near 110 K requiring refrigeration for portable HPGe detectors. Portability is highly desirable and can be accomplished by means of a standalone, compact, low-vibration, efficient cryocooler. Power consumption is to be sufficiently low so that the overall system including battery packs is indeed portable. Various existing cryogenic refrigeration systems are thought not to be applicable for the current DHS application either for reasons of excessive power consumption, vibration or system mass, or for lacking reliability and efficiency. To address the refrigeration issue, we propose to develop a miniature pulse tube cooler. High frequency, pulse-tube coolers (PTCs) represent the most promising technology for achieving lightweight standalone cryocoolers. Applications of this cooler include cooling of infrared and gamma ray detectors, cooling of electronics, and for use in the biomedical industry.

H-SB05.1-003
IMPROVED HIGH PURITY GERMANIUM COOLING MECHANISMS

NBCHC050113 0511114
(FY05.1 Phase I)
High Performance Long-Life Cooler for Transportable Gamma Ray Detectors

Atlas Scientific
1367 Camino Robles Way
San Jose, CA 95120-4925

06/01/2005
to
12/15/2005
$99,999.98

This proposal describes a transportable cryocooler to be used for cooling High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, commonly used for the detection of gamma rays. HPGe detectors are highly suitable for identifying nuclear materials, which is of great interest in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) applications. HPGe detectors need to operate near 110 K requiring refrigeration. High cooling performance is highly desirable and can be accomplished by means of a compact, low-vibration, efficient cryocooler. Various existing cryogenic refrigeration systems are thought not to be applicable for the current DHS application either for reasons of excessive vibration or system mass, or for lacking reliability and efficiency. To address these refrigeration issues, we propose to develop a high performance pulse tube cooler. High frequency pulse-tube coolers (PTCs) represent the most promising technology for achieving reliable lightweight cryocoolers. Applications of this cooler include cooling of infrared and gamma ray detectors, cooling of electronics, and the biomedical industry.

H-SB05.1-004
LOW COST UNDERWATER THREAT DETECTION SYSTEM

NBCHC050124 0511138
(FY05.1 Phase I)
High Resolution Underwater Passive Threat Detection System

Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217

06/24/2005
to
01/06/2006
$99,995.00

We propose to develop a highly sensitive, low cost system for underwater perimeter control. The setup, designed for protection of waterside facilities and infrastructure, consists of a fiber-optic cable placed in front of a critical or high-value asset, connected to a compact readout system. A single source sends out acoustic sonar pulses. Sensor structures embedded in the fiber in conjunction with innovative mechanical features and a novel readout system form an ultra-sensitive distributed detector for backreflections of any approaching object. A sophisticated data processing algorithm reconstructs the features of the possible intruder, compares it to its decision table and triggers an alarm if indicated. Built-in temperature compensation and self-referencing will allow reliable measurements in diverse environmental conditions. In Phase I, IOS will develop a working model of the sensing array and deliver it to HSARPA for demonstration. A fully functional prototype will be developed and demonstrated in Phase II.

H-SB05.1-004
LOW COST UNDERWATER THREAT DETECTION SYSTEM

NBCHC050134 0511211
(FY05.1 Phase I)
An Underwater Threat Detection System Employing Low-Cost Sensing and Advanced Algorithms

Toyon Research Corporation
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117-3021

06/01/2005
to
12/15/2005
$100,000.00

A vast array of high-value installations are situated within or near waterways. With such a large number of vulnerable targets, current threat detection schemes are too costly to provide sufficient levels of protection. At the same time, with 95% of material goods arriving via ports and waterways, any new system must offer sufficient performance to prove effective in such an active environment. A new paradigm in identification and localization of targets of interest is the use of large numbers of low-cost distributed sensors rather than single high-fidelity sensors. This proposal seeks to provide an autonomous system that mates arrays of underwater transducers to novel fusion, tracking, and target classification algorithms. Our sensing approach is based on the concept of active forward scattering. Sets of measurements from the sensor array are passed to a central control center, which can be located on- or off-site and uses COTS computer hardware. The particle filter will be used for fusion and tracking due to the ease with which it can manage nonlinear measurements and negative information. A Bayesian network will be used for target classification because the algorithm can incorporate an array of target attributes including signature, velocity, bearing, maneuverability, etc.

H-SB05.1-005
INNOVATIVE LESS-LETHAL DEVICES FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT

NBCHC050108 0511073
(FY05.1 Phase I)
Inertial Capacitive Incapacitator

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

06/01/2005
to
12/15/2005
$99,992.00

The Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency is seeking an innovative less-lethal untethered electromuscular disruptor device that is inexpensive, safe, lightweight, man portable, and easy to use to stop illegal behavior of individuals, groups, or crowds. The physical environments vary from a small room to a city street or a sports stadium. The goal is to temporarily incapacitate, confuse, delay, or restrain a person or persons when lethal force is not appropriate or the use of lethal force could cause collateral effects such as injury to bystanders, or damage to property or the environment. To meet this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Inertial Capacitive Incapacitator (ICI) based on a unique combination of a soft ring airfoil with a compact, thin film voltage generator. The ICI will be powered by inertial force to produce a high-voltage discharge of limited energy. The ICI device can be optimized to fit virtually any launcher. Because of the low impact momentum needed, the ICI is safe and can be launched even by a pneumatic pistol. The ICI is charged when it is fabricated, and can maintain this charge for decades. The electric energy delivered does not depend on the distance to the target. The proposed ICI avoids the drawbacks of current nonlethal munitions: it is not tethered to the launching platform, and is low-cost, lightweight, and easy to use. Commercial products will include modified nonlethal tools and weapons for law enforcement, security guards, personal self-defense, and possibly hunting. With their single stun dartless action, the novel ICI based projectiles will dramatically reduce the risk of accidental lethal injury, and can replace present nonlethal weapons. The ICI technology will replace blunt trauma with much safer electrical incapacitation.

H-SB05.1-005
INNOVATIVE LESS-LETHAL DEVICES FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT

NBCHC050104 0511135
(FY05.1 Phase I)
Less-Lethal Eye Safe Handheld LED-Based Incapacitator for Law Enforcement

Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217

06/01/2005
to
12/15/2005
$99,999.00

Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) has developed and demonstrated a prototype dazzler that utilizes an array of super-bright Light Emitting Diode (LED) clusters to produce disorientation and strong flashblindness with afterimages. In this project, IOS proposes to develop a significantly improved device that can operate at distances up to 50 feet at the maximum permissible eye-safe level. Two new innovations will be incorporated into the device: (1) a rangefinding technology that will permit rapid adjustment of the radiant power to the maximum eye-safe level, in real time, at any of the operational target distances; and (2) a novel scanner that will allow the device to cover an area much larger than the beam size, while still providing a flash frequency and exposure level as effective as the single beam over the entire area. Control electronics and a preprogrammed chip will be used to allow operation at randomly varying frequencies within the band of maximum effectiveness, and to utilize several colors of light to enhance disorientation.

H-SB05.1-006
SECURE CARTON SYSTEM

NBCHC050111 0511032
(FY05.1 Phase I)
Secure Carton Integrated Electronic Remote System

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

06/01/2005
to
12/15/2005
$99,999.00

The Department of Homeland Security is seeking innovative approaches and key technologies for securing intermodal cargo, and for integrity monitoring with tracking capability at the level below that of the ISO container. This technology is to include a secure tamper-evident skin and active RFID with a secure information system, and the capability of arming and monitoring the system, with local communications for reporting any integrity breach. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new four-security-layer Secure Parcel ISO Distributed Enhanced RFID (SPIDER) system based on: smart electric skin with conductive ink; unique RFID communication with container; protection against sophisticated intrusion; geospatial analysis tracking, and software for effective manipulation and analysis of parcel status in a Web-GIS environment. In Phase I POC will design the critical material, electronic, and software components, and develop a working prototype for the first two security layers of the SPIDER. Phase II will culminate in a SPIDER fully functional prototype. POC's experience in the web-imprinting-fabrication process, electronic packaging, electronic components, and GIS not only ensures the smooth integration of SPIDER into U.S. Homeland Security ACSD and MATTS but also will attract investment to enter the international container shipping and global logistics markets. The integration of POC's cost-effective SPIDER technology into the ACSD and MATTS programs for secure ISO containers will increase the productivity and accuracy of these tools. POC's SPIDER not only meets the major DHS requirements for cargo integrity monitoring, but also has significant commercial applications in international intermodal shipping and global logistics.

H-SB05.2-001
HANDHELD BIOLOGICAL DETECTION SYSTEM

NBCHC060017 0521013
(FY05.2 Phase I)
Hand-Held MENTOR for Biological Threat Material Detection and Identification

Menon and Associates, Inc.
12282 Libelle Ct.
San Diego, CA 92131-3845

12/15/2005
to
06/30/2006
$100,000.00

Emergency responders require a hand-held instrument in the field for screening specific sites for biological threat materials. In Phase I we will complete a design for an instrument, called MENTOR, which meets the needs and specifications of the emergency response teams. Innovative methods will be used to test electronic and software modules to transition the MENTOR system from a desktop to hand-held system. In Phase II we plan to complete the design and build the final fieldable prototype system. This system will then be tested in collaboration with the emergency response teams, including BioWatch program, in the field. Initial tests using the MENTOR proved that it detects and identifies toxins, bacteria and virus instantaneously. It uses parts that can be made rugged, with miniature modules that can be easily maintained and replaced. Connectivity to the internet allows data downloads and alerts. User friendly software and display enable operating the system in hazardous conditions. MENTOR can be used to monitor areas such as airports, shopping malls, mail, cargo, border and customs.

H-SB05.2-001
HANDHELD BIOLOGICAL DETECTION SYSTEM

NBCHC060032 0521157
(FY05.2 Phase I)
Fast, easy, reliable first responder bioterrorism detection system

Investigen, Inc.
750 Alfred Nobel Drive
Suite 109
Hercules, CA 94547-1836

02/01/2006
to
08/15/2006
$99,600.00

The proposed research is to determine feasibility of developing a stable, simple, rapid method of detecting the nucleic acid (NA) from bioterrorism agents. This method would be based on Investigen's novel and elegant "smartDNA" technology. This system utilizes a peptide nucleic acid probe cocktail to produce a rapid color change when probes hybridize to complementary NA sequences. Phase 1 will: 1) demonstrate detection of multiple agents; 2) develop collection hardware and consumables; 3) develop processing hardware and consumables, 4) develop detection hardware and consumables, and 5) validate system performance. With this validation of the feasibility of developing a smartDNA first responder bioterrorism agent detection system, we would develop the system to detect category A bioterrorism agents. The intention is to create a commercial diagnostic assay to detect bioterrorism agents that is so simple and stable that one could be in every locality. Such a test could be used in peripheral locations away from a central lab. This would help response to and may even deter bioterrorism attacks. smartDNA is uniquely suited to situations where there is not easy access to a central lab and a NA test is ideal. These include disease assessment in public health settings and agriculture.

H-SB05.2-001
HANDHELD BIOLOGICAL DETECTION SYSTEM

NBCHC060031 0521268
(FY05.2 Phase I)
BioPhalanx, a hand portable discrete monolithic microarray biothreat detector

Arcxis Biotechnologies
18858 Carlton Ave
Castro Valley, CA 94546-2908

12/15/2005
to
06/30/2006
$100,000.00

The focus of this proposal is to develop BioPhalanx a rapid, hand portable, robust detection system for multiplexed detection of bio-threats, in harsh environments. We have developed a new method of detection called Combinatorial Probe Analysis (CPA), which provides an exponential increase in detection reliability. This type of analysis will greatly reduce false positives and false negatives; in addition it is reusable and eliminates special storage requirements for reagents. The Arcxis Biotechnologies team has realized specific technical advancements in the optimization of hybridization assays for nucleic acid detection on porous polymer monoliths (PPM). We have further developed the ability to perform rapid and complete solubilisation of viruses, vegetative bacteria and bacterial spores with an ultra high temperature solubilisation protocol. Combining these proprietary technologies provides the ability to perform rapid highly multiplexed analysis of a variety of bioagents, including bacteria viruses, and protein biotoxins. The BioPhalanx system is designed to perform completely automated sample preparation and analysis, in a time frame of five minutes or less. The assay is simple in design allowing users in personal protective equipment to easily operate the system. In all, the proposed BioPhalanx system is robust, simple to use, and addresses the goals of DHS and the first responder community.

H-SB05.2-005
METHODS TO DETERMINE STRUCTURAL STABILITY

NBCHC060014 0521045
(FY05.2 Phase I)
Structure Health-Assessing Wireless Sensors

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

12/15/2005
to
06/30/2006
$99,996.00

To address the need for on-the-spot structural stability assessment by emergency personnel, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new wireless stand-off structure integrity monitoring system, Structure Health Assessing Wireless Sensors (SHAWS), based on multimodal remote sensors, a wireless communication module, and handheld receivers. The SHAWS system evaluates the stability of structures by means of multimodal, hybrid sensors in terms of structure displacement, dislocation, and strain changes. The sensors' output signals are transmitted for instant alarm/warning to multiple users through a wireless network. In prototyping the SHAWS system, POC will make use of its customized sensor packages such as an integrated inertial MEMS, optical proximity sensors, and smart material strain sensors, and wireless networking systems. In Phase I POC will demonstrate a functional SHAWS prototype with a testbed, showing that SHAWS can accurately monitor a structure's state-of-health in real time. In Phase II POC plans to develop a packaged SHAWS system and demonstrate full functionality in realistic environments. POC's SHAWS commercial applications include data processing/storage for shipboard sensors, where remote data measurements and updates are required for control and monitoring purposes such as transportation, logistics, equipment tracking and maintenance, and security.

H-SB05.2-005
METHODS TO DETERMINE STRUCTURAL STABILITY

NBCHC060016 0521101
(FY05.2 Phase I)
Real-Time Holographic Structural Instability Evaluation System

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

12/15/2005
to
06/30/2006
$99,989.00

To address the need for improved techniques to determine the structural stability buildings and other structures, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Real-time Holographic Structural Instability Evaluation (RHOSIE) system based on novel temporally modulated holography (TMH), with acoustic excitation and highly sensitive rewritable photothermoplastic recording film. The RHOSIE system holographically records and reconstructs the surface vibration pattern as an indicator of material structure stability, characteristic of a material structure that is acoustically stimulated by a transducer. The overall vibration pattern recorded in the holograms can be read out by a CCD camera, and the data processed to extract the high-frequency components resulting from the stress distribution in the material structure of the building. The mapped stresses on the structure can be analyzed to quantify the structural integrity to warn of serious instability or pending collapse. In Phase I POC will design, analyze, and assemble a breadboard prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of RHOSIE. In Phase II we will focus on an optimized, miniaturized, and fully functional packaged portable prototype system for testing and evaluation at a HSARPA selected facility.

H-SB05.2-005
METHODS TO DETERMINE STRUCTURAL STABILITY

NBCHC060018 0521179
(FY05.2 Phase I)
Smart Joint system for in-situ monitoring of buildings

Acellent Technologies, Inc.
155 C-3 Moffett Park Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1331

12/15/2005
to
06/30/2006
$99,996.60

Acellent Technologies proposes to develop a smart joint structural health monitoring (SHM) sensor network that can autonomously assess in real time the structural stability of structures such as buildings. The sensor network will use a combination of large and small piezoelectric actuators and sensors to characterize damage in, and monitor the rigidity of components of the building primary structure, and fiber optic temperature sensors to monitor the structural temperature at various locations in the building. Acellent's existing sensor network technology will be used as the basis for the proposed development. Innovations will include a redesigned sensor/actuator arrangement, the integration of fiber optic temperature sensors and software that will provide a map of the structural damage, rigidity and temperature information that will be used to provide a real time assessment of the building structural integrity. An additional development will be to use the piezoelectric sensors to recognize sound and/or voice transmitted through the structure to allow search and rescue personnel to pin-point the location of survivors and determine what they are trying to say through an easy conversion to text messaging. Phase I will focus on preliminary prototyping and technology demonstrations while Phase II will focus on complete system development.

H-SB05.2-006
PORTABLE/TRANSPORTABLE DIRECTIONAL GAMMA RAY AND/OR DIRECTIONAL NEUTRON DETECTORS

NBCHC060045 0521004
(FY05.2 Phase I)
Innovative Gamma source finding array

Space Micro Inc.
10401 Roselle Street
Ste 400
San Diego, CA 92121-2256

12/15/2005
to
06/30/2006
$100,000.00

The high stress situations facing Security Staff responsible for detecting radiological threats to the United States is complicated by the need to identify these threats in complex backgrounds of natural and/or legitimately transported medical and industrial radiation sources. Although the operational constraints vary, a common need is to quickly provide Specific Isotope and Source Location information to enable situational assessment. Considerable gains have been made in developing and deploying the next generation of Isotope Identifiers but no acceptable tool is available outside of the laboratory for accurately and quickly resolving the Source Angular Location without heavy, movable shield material. Preliminary modeling by Space Micro indicates that the capabilities of Lanthanum Halides used in recent Isotope Identifiers coupled with an innovative geometric array and a unique algorithm will exploit the properties of Lanthanum Halides to enable resolving source angular direction to better than 15o. This Phase I proposal is for laboratory confirmation that this predicted angular resolution can be achieved and to provide a technical foundation for product commercialization. Since the scintillation material is commercially available, this approach will facilitate a relatively low risk program to quickly produce field prototypes that meet the performance requirements of our Homeland Defense Operators.

H-SB05.2-006
PORTABLE/TRANSPORTABLE DIRECTIONAL GAMMA RAY AND/OR DIRECTIONAL NEUTRON DETECTORS

NBCHC060021 0521074
(FY05.2 Phase I)
A Directional Gamma Auto Spectrometer

Aguila Technologies, Inc.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92078-2631

12/15/2005
to
06/30/2006
$99,994.00

The Government is deploying a growing number of radiation detectors at U.S. borders, ports of entry and other key locations, intended to assist in the detection of a potential terrorist`s nuclear explosive device or radiological dispersal device. The most widely deployed radiation detector products today are radiation "pagers". Such products are unable to differentiate between natural radiation, legitimate and clandestine radioactive materials, resulting in a disturbingly high incidence of false positives. There is a need for a device that can provide radionuclide identification and spatial differentiation in portable unit. This proposal will develop a low-cost, battery-operated handheld radiation sensor with these features. The proposed sensor will allow trained personnel in the field to locate and identify potentially threatening radionuclides. It will differentiate radioactive sources as potentially dangerous or likely benign and provide radioemitter source direction, distance and size information. It is based on pixel array CdZnTe detectors, new multichannel detector readout ASICS, directionally-sensitive elements, state-of-the art high density packaging and novel software and firmware that can deconvolve nuclear spectra to identify myriad combinations of gamma radiation sources.

H-SB06.1-001
AEROSOL COLLECTION INTO LOW ANALYSIS VOLUMES (ACLAV)

NBCHC060106 0611211
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Aerosol Collection into Small Liquid Volumes for Biological Assays

Aerosol Dynamics Inc.
935 Grayson St.
Berkeley, CA 94710-2640

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$99,996.00

Detection systems for aeropathogens require the concentration of airborne particles from large volumes of air into small volumes of liquid. This proposal addresses this need through droplet encapsulation of airborne particles, with subsequent capture into a microliter-sized collection reservoir. Droplet encapsulation is accomplished through our company's proven, patented growth tube technology. The encapsulation occurs rapidly, within 5 milisecs, by condensational growth in region of water vapor supersaturation. The supersaturation is created in a thermally-diffusive laminar flow. No steam or temperature extremes are required. The final droplet size can be controlled, and for small particles is independent of the initial particle size. In Phase 1 this approach will be explored for the collection of 0.5 micrometre to 10 micrometre particles from an air flow of 10 L/min into liquid volumes of 30 microliter or less. Results will be used to assess the power, size and performance to be expected for a Phase 2 system that will be scaled to air flow rates of 100 L/min.

H-SB06.1-002
RELIABLE PEROXIDE-BASED EXPLOSIVES DETECTION WITH LOW FALSE ALARM RATE

NBCHC060110 0611057
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Portable Raman Optical Trace Explosive Detection System

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$100,000.00

To address the need for a portable device to detect trace amounts of peroxide-based homemade explosives (HME) on individuals and packages in public transportation settings, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Portable Raman Optical Trace Explosive Detection (PROTEX) system. This man-portable noncontact system will agitate, sample and concentrate an air sample near the test object, followed by Raman optical analysis of this concentrate to determine whether HME or other explosive constituents are present. It features a throughput of three individuals/packages screened per minute; high sensitivity from ppm to ppb levels or lower of peroxide explosive vapor and single-microgram-sized particulates of HME residue; and high specificity with a false alarm rate well below 5%. The operationally safe system will require no consumables, and will consume <10 W of battery power. In Phase I POC will assemble a proof-of-concept prototype and test it on surrogates. In Phase II we will develop a prototype system for laboratory and field testing and estimate its false alarm rate. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) can use this system to screen passengers and baggage at airports. The system will also benefit environmental pollution monitoring as well as security monitoring during military and peacekeeping operations.

H-SB06.1-003
ENHANCED EXPLOSIVE SAMPLE COLLECTION AND/OR PRECONCENTRATION SYSTEMS

NBCHC060113 0611133
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Vapor/Particle Collector/Concentrator for Explosives Trace Detection

Syagen Technology, Inc.
1411 Warner Ave.
Tustin, CA 92780-6461

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$99,840.00

In this Phase I project, Syagen will demonstrate the feasibility for a vapor/particle sampler for explosives de-tection consisting of a collection probe and a concentrator. We will demonstrate the interface of the sampler to mass spectrometry (MS), however, it can also be used for ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), gas chromatography (GC), and essentially all forms of optical spectroscopies that measure vapor composition (e.g., infrared, Raman, ultraviolet, mil-limeter wave, etc.). The sampler will be based on a high-throughput snorkel and sampling probe capable of collecting particles and vapor onto a concentrator device. The sampling probe will use a proven air-shower impinger to dislodge residue and particles from surfaces without making contact. The probe unit will also include an IR lamp assembly to optionally heat surfaces to improve vapor collection. The vapor, particles, and dislodged residue are swept through the sampling snorkel to a vapor/particle concentrator. The vapor and particles are then thermally desorbed to the detector for analysis. The total sampling cycling time can be as short as 5 s. In Phase I we will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed vapor/particle collector/concentrator. The proposed automated sampling device for collecting and concentrating explosive vapors and particles for explosives trace detection meets critical needs in homeland security and the DOD. The benefit is high performance for a variety of screening situations (e.g., personnel, vehicle, baggage, surfaces). Furthermore the sampler can be interfaced to essentially any trace detector. The device has a very flexible CONOPS for a variety of applications including: (1) rapid screening of people, baggage, and vehicles, (2) force protec-tion, (3) first response, (4) treaty compliance monitoring, (5) general environmental monitoring.

H-SB06.1-004
SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR A SOUTHERN BORDER SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

NBCHC060116 0611064
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Signal Processing for a Southern Border Surveillance System

Toyon Research Corporation
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117-3021

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$100,000.00

Successfully monitoring vast areas of landscape is crucial for maintaining security across the United States border. We envision the solution to this problem to consist of a search sensor, such as a radar, that cues an EO/IR sensor which provides recognition and tracking capabilities. In this Phase I effort, we propose to focus on the signal processing required to support the EO/IR recognition and tracking function. We propose a software solution that detects and tracks moving and stationary targets that may be closely separated. Our signal processing solution includes frame registration, frame differencing, target segmentation, target tracking, and target feature extraction. Such techniques have already established high target detection performance while maintaining low numbers of false alarms. We will address requirements for preventing intruders from crossing the Southern border and the considerations for retrieving illegal entrants that may evade border security. Further, we show how real-time processing capability can be achieved through efficient candidate target segmentation, followed by a hierarchical classification structure. Throughout, we demonstrate how storage and bandwidth requirements can be minimized, to enable deployment of the complete system in a variety of resource-constrained environments, leading to reduced operator workload and improved surveillance effectiveness.

H-SB06.1-004
SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR A SOUTHERN BORDER SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

NBCHC060117 0611066
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Signal Processing for a Southern Border Surveillance System

AETC Incorporated
8910 University Center Lane, Suite 900
San Diego, CA 92122-1012

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$100,000.00

The U.S. Border Patrol is in critical need of improved surveillance for detection of people and vehicles illegally crossing the Southern Border, particularly in rural areas. AETC will conduct a Phase 1 feasibility study of acoustics-based surveillance and signal processing techniques to address the Southern Border problem. The overall system concept encompasses a network of low-cost acoustic sensors and advanced signal processing for automated detection and classification of border crossings. This study will (1) identify specific signatures for acoustic monitoring of people and vehicles crossing the border, (2) design and implement advanced signal processing algorithms required for automatic detection and classification of these signatures, (4) define sensor configuration and front-end hardware, (3) determine maximum detection range, (4) estimate PD and PFA performance, and (5) assess cost per unit distance of border monitored for this capability. In addressing this Homeland Security problem, AETC will leverage substantial knowledge and expertise in acoustic signal processing derived from relevant experience in U.S. defense applications. As a commercialization strategy, AETC plans to license the technology developed under this SBIR to manufacturers who will produce and sell platforms for border and facility security. Potential end-users would include the U.S. Border Patrol, military, and law enforcement agencies.

H-SB06.1-004
SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR A SOUTHERN BORDER SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

NBCHC060118 0611113
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Signal Processing for a Southern Border Surveillance System

Information Systems Laboratories
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121-2722

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$99,950.39

There is a vital need to secure the long southern border of the United States, much of its length passing through rural and desolate areas. This can be achieved using a fixed land-based sensor network to detect people and vehicles crossing the border. ISL and DMT have identified a system architecture which makes a southern border security system achievable at an affordable price. A surveillance system based on a ground-moving target indicator (GMTI) radar system designed to detect slow-moving, low radar cross section (RCS) targets and an electro-optical (EO)/infra-red (IR) camera can provide the coverage, update time, all weather performance, and cost effectiveness to make a border surveillance system practical. The key to making the surveillance system effective, and the focus of this effort, is to develop signal processing algorithms to achieve a high probability of detection on small, slow moving targets, such as walking people, in a high clutter environment while maintaining a very low false alarm rate. During Phase I, ISL and DMT will investigate an innovative approach to incorporate the knowledge of the surrounding terrain, wind-blown clutter, sensor fusion, and target tracking to achieve a high detection probability and minimize the false alarm rate.

H-SB06.1-005
HUMAN DETECTOR FOR CARGO SHIPPING CONTAINERS

NBCHC060145 0611036
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Human Occupancy Detection System

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$100,000.00

To address the HSARPA need to detect humans hiding in cargo shipping containers, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Human Occupancy Detection (HOD) system. The HOD will be based on POC's sensor fusion and neural networks pattern recognition technology, combined with a novel chemical gas sensor array. The HOD detects human presence by detecting and identifying major human respiratory and flatus gases in a confined cargo shipping container. The HOD is packed in a porous metal box (<2 in. x 2 in. x 1 in.) and covertly installed inside the cargo container. It can be operated either standalone or integrated into the Advanced Cargo Security Device. Several HODs can be installed at different container locations to increase detection accuracy. The HOD can operate on a 1.5 V AAA battery (2000 mAh) for more than 1400 continuous hours, and stay operational under the various conditions in which shipping containers operate. It costs <$150 with integrated COTS components. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of HOD by testing it in simulated cargo conditions. In Phase II POC plans to fabricate a preproduction prototype HOD and test it in a real intermodal shipping cargo container evnvironment.

H-SB06.1-005
HUMAN DETECTOR FOR CARGO SHIPPING CONTAINERS

NBCHC060133 0611048
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Membrane-Based Interferometric Respiration Sensor

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$99,993.00

To address the national need to increase transportation security and to prevent human smuggling within cargo containers, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop Membrane-based Interferometric Respiration Sensor (MIRS), based on a semipermeable, membrane that preferentially transmits carbon dioxide and an active interferometric readout to detect minute periodic variations in carbon dioxide concentration within a container caused by human respiration. The MIRS incorporates on-board data analysis to detect the presence of humans with low-false alarm rates. The MIRS will have a wireless transmitter to send an alarm to security personnel and to identify the container and time of alarm. It will consume <1 mA of battery current, thus ensuring long-term operation without battery change. The MIRS will be low-cost, easy to install and easy to use, compact, and rugged, and capable of operation in harsh environmental conditions. The compact, MIRS can also be used to search for victims of natural disasters (earthquakes, hurricanes), and for medical applications (as a capnometer). In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of MIRS by fabricating an experimental prototype and demonstrating its performance in various environmental conditions. In Phase II POC plans to develop engineering prototypes for field evaluation and testing.

H-SB06.1-008
BOTNET DETECTION AND MITIGATION

NBCHC060120 0611093
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Intelligent Microagent Grid for Botnet Detection and Mitigation

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$99,997.00

To address the Homeland Security's need for detecting and mitigating bots and botnets, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Intelligent Microagent Grid (IMG). The IMG system is based on a new microagent model that learns the behavior of bots and botnets and stops intrusive and malicious activities by equipping new binary search engines, neural nets, systematic detection algorithms from known and unknown behavior of bots and botnets, and an inline sniffing mechanism. IMG will increase cyber security by implementing a multi-layer security mechanism with specialized microagents that monitor network traffic and ports from a local area network to a wide area network. The system will be a scalable, interoperable, reusable, and distributed cyber defense tool via Web services and application programming interface built with object oriented programming language. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of the IMG prototype by testing with bots and botnets on real networks. Our Phases I and II efforts will focus on developing an operational prototype that will be transitioned to a commercial product in Phase III. The IMG software will benefit commercial Internet and network security products for federal, state, and local governments, particularly the Department of Homeland Security.

H-SB06.1-009
MANAGING MULTI-MEDIA SURVEILLANCE INFORMATION NETWORKS

NBCHC060139 0611108
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Network-centric Inter-channel Fusion for Multi-media Surveillance

Broadata Communications, Inc.
2545 W. 237th Street, Suite K
Torrance, CA 90505-5229

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$99,972.00

The Department of Homeland Security is seeking innovative highly-scalable information processing technologies to manage multimedia surveillance information networks. To address this need, Broadata Communications Inc. (BCI) proposes a highly innovative Network-centric Inter-channel Fusion (NIF) system solution. The NIF system is leveraged on a unique network-centric signal processing technique to automate inter-channel multimedia data compression and fusion, while these multimedia data are transmitting through a network. In other words, the NIF system is a network grid that consists of network nodes processing data collectively and on-the-fly. The NIF can automate sensor data processing, while significantly reducing required resources (bandwidth, storage, processing power, latency, etc.). In addition to the Homeland Security's surveillance information network management applications, the increased efficiency and simplicity of automated sensor data processing provided by NIF can have other security and monitoring applications, including: battlespace situation and threat assessment, terrorist video surveillance, perimeter defense, and equipment maintenance.

H-SB06.1-009
MANAGING MULTI-MEDIA SURVEILLANCE INFORMATION NETWORKS

NBCHC060140 0613017
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Adaptive camera to display mappings using computer vision

Polar Rain Inc
1427 Cerro Verde
San Jose, CA 95120-4910

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$99,952.77

The video surveillance industry is experiencing dramatic change with the move from analog to digital video. Command centers need to have coordinated viewing of multiple camera feeds at one time, and the ability to switch automatically between feeds and display relevant patterns. Conventional security control rooms include a bank of monitors connected through a switch to an array of security cameras. Fixed protocols are used to cycle the cameras through the monitors, with provisions for human over-ride. Advances in display technology and high speed networks motivate us to propose a radically new model of the human/display interface in the control room. We propose general techniques, based on computer vision algorithms for measuring the saliency of surveillance videos, for mapping video cameras to display space (resulting in variable amounts of display space per camera), and for visualizing the information in each video stream. The computer vision techniques involve statistical characterization of patterns of movements to develop measures of movement saliency (to control the camera to display space mapping), and perceptual modeling of video content to drive the visualization of an individual video stream. We describe a pilot user study to evaluate these ideas.

H-SB06.1-010
NON-NUCLEAR SOURCES OR TECHNIQUES TO REPLACE NUCLEAR SOURCES IN COMMERCIAL (NON-MEDICAL) APPLICATIONS

NBCHC060121 0611038
(FY06.1 Phase I)
Dielectric Relaxation Analyzing Gauge

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

09/01/2006
to
03/15/2007
$149,995.00

To reduce the amount of radioactive material in common use for commercial applications and thus improve public security, the DNDO is seeking replacements for devices that commonly incorporate such material. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Dielectric Relaxation Analyzing Gauge (DRAG) that will replace isotope-based gauges for thickness, level, and velocity measurements in materials such as polymers, glasses, and ceramics. The device implements improved time domain dielectric spectrometry. In addition to a simple capacitive probe, it contains a microcontroller-based data acquisition and processing board with digital output. DRAG determines the peak value of dielectric losses in the monitored material, which is proportional to the amount of this material between the electrodes of the capacitive probe; therefore, the signal is similar to the attenuation of radiation in an isotope gauge. The proposed device will not only replace isotope-based industrial gauging devices that consume ~50 kg of isotopes annually, but will have significant advantages such as the capability to simultaneously measure flow rate and/or to distinguish nonuniformity in materials. The project will result in the fabrication of a dielectrometric gauge and a demonstration of how it can replace isotope gauges.

H-SB06.2-001
SYSTEM FOR DESIGNING AND EVALUATING CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENT SENSOR NETWORKS

NBCHC070087 0621134
(FY06.2 Phase I)
System for Designing and Evaluating Chemical or Biological Agent Sensor Networks

Toyon Research Corporation
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117-3021

04/15/2007
to
10/31/2007
$100,000.00

The current state-of-the-art (SOA) process for designing chemical and biological sensor networks at facilities is slow, expensive, and requires highly skilled subject matter experts to complete. Toyon Research Corporation proposes a radically different approach to the SOA process, which will be faster, more affordable, and accessible to non-expert facility operators. Using the proposed approach will help break down the barriers of cost and subject matter knowledge encountered today by the facility operators in government and commercial sectors. Removing these barriers will better enable the development investments of DHS and private industry in sensor technologies to protect many more critical infrastructure and key asset (CI/KA) facilities. The proposed system consists of a suite of testing technologies, bringing together (1) mature sensors used for HVAC testing and balancing applications, (2) the latest developments in tracer test materials and the detection equipment, and (3) SOA methods for wireless data communication. The test equipment will transmit data wirelessly to a central "nerve center" that presents real-time situational awareness, and also contains algorithms for interpreting and analyzing data "on the fly". The proposed system makes tracer testing less labor intensive, is designed for the stringent environmental conditions characteristic of CI/KA facilities, and will be demonstrated in full-scale buildings within the Phase I or II development cycle. Toyon's broad background in this area makes them well-suited for designing this system. Notable relevant experiences include tracer testing, designing protective architectures for chemical, biological and explosive threats, evaluating CB sensor technologies, designing affordable wireless networks for building applications and developing command-and-control software. Developing this system strengthens Toyon's position as a "one-stop" system architect for designing protective architectures for chemical, biological and explosive threats. Potential commercialization opportunities include any commercial or government CI/KA facility, or organizations such as DHS with the charter to protect them.

H-SB06.2-002
MOBILE PERIPHERAL DEVICE FOR BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

NBCHC070082 0621066
(FY06.2 Phase I)
Mobile ELISA-Based Pathogen Detection System

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

03/15/2007
to
09/30/2007
$99,993.00

To address the HSARPA need for a mobile peripheral system capable of performing standard molecular analysis on biological samples from either swabs or liquids for detection of biological threat agents, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop Mobile ELISA-Based Pathogen Detection (MEPAD) system. This proposed device is based on a novel, disposable, microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) that performs conventional ELISA and is equipped with a unique fiber optic measurement system. The device will be portable, USB-driven, fully-contained, and designed for use by a nonexpert. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of MEPAD system by fabricating a disposable LOC for detection of a single pathogen. In Phase II, POC will build a fully miniaturized prototype with integrated signal processing for detection of common pathogens. MEPAD addresses the urgent need for development of a rapid pathogen detection system that can be used by a first responder at the site of an outbreak. Rapid diagnosis using MEPAD and implementation of appropriate measures in a timely manner will save lives. Current methods are labor intensive, require extensive technical expertise, or nonportable equipment. MEPAD system will be the first mobile, easy-to-use, peripheral platform instrument designed to rapidly detect pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity.

H-SB06.2-003
ADVANCED UNATTENDED GROUND SENSOR (UGS) TECHNOLOGIES

NBCHC070076 0621078
(FY06.2 Phase I)
Advanced Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) Technologies

Toyon Research Corporation
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117-3021

03/21/2007
to
10/06/2007
$100,000.00

In border security applications for remote deployment, with no existing infrastructure or roadways as well as areas with dense foliage, a promising technology is the use of unattended ground sensors (UGS). While there has been a great deal of research and development in the areas of UGS and wireless sensor networks (WSN) over the last decade, traditional use of these technologies suffers from either high cost or poor classification performance. Toyon proposes to develop the technology for a hierarchical sensor network including wireless communications and algorithmic capabilities. At the lower level in the hierarchy are ultra low cost trigger nodes, with a single sensor modality, that are responsible for wide area persistent surveillance. At the higher level in the hierarchy are imagery nodes that are responsible for processing detections sent by the trigger nodes. Once an indication that a target may be present, an imager verifies object motion and performs classification. This sensor hierarchy will be supported by custom Toyon wireless communication solutions that meet target metrics of node lifetime and range. Open standard hardware interfaces and data formatting will be used in order to ensure straightforward integration with existing systems. While a promising technology, high cost and poor performance have limited the use of UGS for persistent surveillance in security applications. Traditional deployments of this technology have attempted to increase detection and classification performance by relying on an array of sensor inputs at each UGS. While such multi-modal sensors can improve detection performance, traditional inputs, such as acoustic, suffer from poor classification performance, particularly at significant range. In addition, the inclusion of multiple sensors will negatively impact per node cost, thus dramatically increasing overall expense when hundreds to thousands of nodes are employed. Toyon's approach overcomes these difficulties by using a mixture of UGS nodes. For wide area surveillance we employ a single binary sensor that is only required to form detections. It is the job of a much fewer number of imagery nodes to verify target detections and perform classification. Such an architecture not only overcomes the high costs associated with wide deployment, but dramatically reduces false alarms. Terrain masking and other sources of obscuration are also handled well with the proposed architecture through node communication and cooperative tasking.

H-SB06.2-005
3-D VISUALIZATION SYSTEM TO SHOW FIRST RESPONDERS AND ASSETS WITHIN BUILDING STRUCTURES IN URBAN AREAS FOR SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

NBCHC070069 0621156
(FY06.2 Phase I)
A 3-D Visualization System for Situational Awareness: Identifying, Locating, and Tracking People/Resources in Urban Area Infrastructures

UtopiaCompression Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd.
Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064-1839

04/15/2007
to
10/31/2007
$99,991.00

In order to achieve the strategic plan for a more secure Emergency Preparedness and Response system for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), UtopiaCompression proposes to develop innovative 3-D visualization software system for identifying, localizing and tracking people/resources within buildings in urban area infrastructures. The proposed system will not only automatically collect and process available data/information (relevant to the incident site) for generating the building and terrain models, but also accept real-time measurements of people and resources within simulated urban area and building structures and provide an interactive visualization of the integrated information to the incident commanders for situational awareness (on an incident scene). The proposed technologies and software system will greatly benefit DHS by enabling far superior visualization and tracking capabilities within buildings, and will greatly enhance the effective decision making capabilities of incident commanders acting in search, rescue and task assignments. By enabling improved situational awareness to incident commanders regarding the location and infrastructural surroundings of resources, responders and victims during a national disaster or security incident, the proposed technology will greatly increase the effectiveness and speed of rescue operations and interventions, thus saving lives and decreasing costs associated with search and rescue and security related crises.

H-SB06.2-006
AUTOMATED SCENARIO/SCRIPT BUILDER FOR SIMULATION-BASED TRAINING SYSTEMS

NBCHC070072 0621123
(FY06.2 Phase I)
ActionBuilder(TM): Automated Scenario/Script Builder for Simulation-Based Training Systems

Intelligent Systems Technology, Inc.
12122 Victoria Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90066-3118

03/15/2007
to
09/30/2007
$100,000.00

PROJECT SUMMARY To make simulation-based exercise development efficient, it is important that scenarios be developed and executed "on-the-fly" in an automated fashion with minimal reliance on software personnel. To this end, what is needed is an intelligent scenario/script building capability that enables training personnel to rapidly assemble and "test-drive" incident scenarios, and that can be smoothly integrated with simulation-based training systems. This capability can then serve as the executive agent, and be a critical component of simulation-based training systems. This project is concerned with the development of an automated scenario/script builder that is: graphical; compliant with current web/software standards; employs non-proprietary implementation with open interfaces for ease of integration; and capable of workflow monitoring and execution simulation. Phase I of this effort is concerned with developing a prototype of this system to provide convincing technical evidence that the innovative scenario/script builder does exhibit the requisite graphical workflow design and execution capability. ANTICIPATED BENEFITS/POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS The scenario/script builder will be interoperable with third party simulation-based training systems for emergency preparedness and response training exercises. Potential military and commercial applications include incident management and response, emergency preparedness, and crisis action planning and execution.

H-SB06.2-006
AUTOMATED SCENARIO/SCRIPT BUILDER FOR SIMULATION-BASED TRAINING SYSTEMS

NBCHC070074 0621200
(FY06.2 Phase I)
Model-Driven Automated Scenario/Script Builder for Simulation-Based Training Systems

Quimba Software
795 Folsom St
1st Floor, #1006
San Francisco, CA 94107-0000

03/15/2007
to
09/30/2007
$100,000.00

We propose to create a system to facilitate timely, efficient, and cost-effective training of Emergency Responders. In particular, we are focused on aspects of training that are the difficult or expensive for repeated live scenarios, such as national or multi-jurisdictional response as well as CBRNE response, each of which could involve military-civilian collaboration.

H-SB06.2-007
HIGH QUANTUM EFFICIENCY FAST DETECTORS FOR THE READOUT OF SCINTILLATORS FOR GAMMA RAY DETECTION

HSHQDC-07-C-00043 0621057
(FY06.2 Phase I)
Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Gallium Nitride Detector

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

04/01/2007
to
09/30/2007
$150,000.00

In response to the HSARPA need for the development of high quantum efficiency, fast photon counting detectors to read UV/visible light emitted by scintillators under gamma radiation, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Gallium Nitride (MISGaN) detector that will have high sensitivity in the UV region for use with cerium-doped crystal scintillator materials for gamma radiation detection. The solid-state, time-gated MISGaN will operate at lower voltage, have high sensitivity in the UV/blue region, cover a much larger area (3-5 in.) and be producible with a lower cost than vacuum photomultiplier tube (PMT) detectors, and will be rugged and shock and magnetic field insensitive. In Phase I POC will build and test a prototype based on commercially available GaN layers on 2 in. wafer substrates to show the advantages of MISGaN over PMTs. The Phase II MISGaN prototype will be fabricated on a base of 4-5 in. wafers. Complete detectors will be assembled with a charge sensitive amplifier. Readout electronics will be assembled at POC with detectors in a portable housing, and the engineering prototype will be demonstrated at POC facilities with a Ce-doped scintillator and test gamma source.

H-SB07.1-001
Trace Explosives Particle and Vapor Sample Collection

NBCHC080010 0711054
(FY07.1 Phase I)
Versatile Trace Explosives Sampling and Collection System

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

10/22/2007
to
05/07/2008
$100,000.00

To address the need for combined vapor and particulate trace explosives sampling and collection, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Versatile Trace Explosives Sampling and CollecTion (V-TEST) system. This noncontact system will agitate and sample air near the test object, and then condense vapor and particulate trace explosives on/in a highly functional nanostructured porous membrane. It features a throughput of at least six individuals/packages per minute, collecting enough sample material to be detected by a commercial trace-explosives detector. Each complete collection takes ~10 s to condense >1 L of air. For a trace level of PPB, this will yield a few nanograms of trace explosives, ~3 orders of magnitude more than the state-of-the-art detection limit (a few piecograms). The proposed V-TEST system is operationally safe, will require no consumables, and will draw <10 W of battery power. In Phase I POC will assemble a proof-of-concept prototype and test it on surrogates. In Phase II we will develop a prototype for laboratory and field testing, and estimate its collection efficiency. The TSA can use this system to screen passengers and baggage. The system will also benefit environmental pollution monitoring and military/peacekeeping security monitoring.

H-SB07.1-002
Subterranean Response and Evacuation

NBCHC080019 0711206
(FY07.1 Phase I)
Distributed Temperature Sensing for Automatic Blast Detection

Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
2363 Calle Del Mundo
Santa Clara, CA 95054-1008

10/22/2007
to
05/07/2008
$99,911.92

Fires in tunnels-whether resulting from collisions, bombs, or other sources-are extremely hazardous. Authorities need immediate notification of the problem to provide quick assistance to passengers and prevent additional collisions. One solution is to place temperature sensors along the length of the tunnel; these sensors can be used to detect blasts and issue an alarm. Placing sensors in a tunnel is challenging, however. Long tunnels require many sensors, which can be prohibitively expensive. After an explosion, the sensor environment is extremely harsh, and the tunnel itself presents challenges to wireless signal transmission. Intelligent Fiber Optics Systems, Corp. (IFOS) proposes to meet the demands of this sensing challenge using fiber optic distributed temperature sensors (DTS). In DTS, an optical fiber is used as a distributed sensing element. Fiber-based DTS is extremely robust and can be used in harsh environments. As a passive optical device, it does not require power, and is immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI). DTS is cost-effective and easy to install, and can quickly identify and monitor significant hot spots and their locations in the tunnel, providing key information to rescue and evacuation personnel.

H-SB07.1-003
Secure Wrap

NBCHC080006 0711026
(FY07.1 Phase I)
Noninvasive-Interrogation Tamper-Detecting Secure Wrap System

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

10/22/2007
to
05/07/2008
$99,996.00

To address the need for a robust and tamper-evident secure wrap for cargo, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Noninvasive-Interrogation Tamper-Detecting Secure Wrap (NITSEW) system based on resonating sensing patterns (RSP) and a handheld standoff interrogation transducer (SIT). The SIT delivers non-contact, ultra-low-resonance-energy excitation of standard stretch wrap modified with the addition of inexpensive, pattern metallized structures, and measures any changes in the response of the film due to tampering. NITSEW will detect tampering with palletized cargo and wrapped goods even inside cardboard boxes and thin-walled wooden crates. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of NITSEW by testing pattern metallized films in realistic shipping scenarios. In Phase II we plan to apply mass production techniques to produce larger-area pattern-metallized secure film for testing on palletized cargo, and to reduce SIT electronics in size, for efficient and robust sensing elements. The development of the NITSEW techology will increase the security of international shipping. As the shipping of palletized goods is a universal procedure, POC's novel secure wrap can be applied worldwide. Additionally, as this plastic sheeting is also used in food wrap, a sanitized tamper-evident version of NITSEW can be adopted by the food industry.

H-SB07.1-005
Responder Wireless Physiological Monitoring Device

NBCHC080012 0711060
(FY07.1 Phase I)
Responder Wireless Physiological Monitoring Device

Quantum Applied Science & Research, Inc.
5764 Pacific Center Blvd.
Suite 107
San Diego, CA 92121-4207

12/01/2007
to
06/15/2008
$99,983.66

The primary cause of mortality in firefighters is cardiovascular disease, which accounts for 45% of fatalities among personnel on duty. Although physiological monitoring devices have existed for decades, their use on subjects during strenuous activities (such as firefighting) has been significantly limited due to excessive signal artifacts and extremely low user compliance arising from the invasive nature of the technologies. QUASAR has spent the past five years developing truly noninvasive, field-deployable sensor technologies and wireless data acquisition systems that address both of these issues. We propose a system for monitoring on-duty firefighters, in which QUASAR's noninvasive ECG sensors are incorporated into an item of firefighter clothing. The sensors are combined with QUASAR's miniature, ultra-low power wireless data acquisition systems to form a Body Area Network. A flexible, modular approach enables additional sensor technologies to be incorporated according to the differing needs of other emergency responder operational environments (CBRN). The system will perform real-time ECG monitoring and communicate wirelessly with the Command Post on the cardiac status of the firefighter. Alerts are generated according to the level of cardiac strain for a firefighter or the presence of dangerous arrhythmias, indicating increasing levels of risk of an immediate cardiovascular incident.

H-SB07.1-005
Responder Wireless Physiological Monitoring Device

NBCHC080011 0711236
(FY07.1 Phase I)
Second Generation, Fully Networked Smart Medical Vests

UtopiaCompression Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd.
Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064-1839

10/31/2007
to
05/16/2008
$99,999.68

Today's state-of-the-art Medical-Vests/Shirts are inflexible and expensive. Typically, data collection component functions as a multi-channel cardiopulmonary digital-recorder with physiologic-sensors-array sewn to the shirt to monitor vital signs. Peripheral diagnostic devices such as pulse-oximeter, blood-pressure, temperature, weight may be plugged via wire into serial-port of shirt-bus. Measurements then become part of digital data-stream. Inflexibility/integral-unity disallows specialization of the shirt for particular missions; e.g. on entering chemical-plants with life-threatening-gases, the vest should be equipped with new devices: CO-detectors, video-cameras, GPS. These sensors cannot simply be wired to the vest. Some sensors must be mounted on helmet, or around wrist requiring wireless Body-LAN. Another limitation is lack of peer-to-peer communications between service-men, which enormously expands communication capability. Phase-I effort demonstrates feasibility of a "second-generation" Medical-Emergency-Vest that is low-cost, flexible, reconfigurable, smart, based on extension/enhancement of LEAP low-energy modular embedded-sensor-architecture developed at UCLA. A router enables Peer-to-Peer communications with other teammates for emergency assistance, or for reach-back from areas without Internet or cellular-network. Low-energy consumption strategy can be designed for specific missions. Security implementation prevents penetrating vest through Body-LAN, P2P network and Internet. The proposed second-generation vest will far exceed functionalities of current state-of-the-art with flexibility/reconfigurable, P2P communications, security, embedded intelligent software and low-cost.

H-SB07.1-007
Improved Chemiresistor Sensing Arrays for Detection of Small Molecules Gases

NBCHC080027 0711084
(FY07.1 Phase I)
Carbon Nanotube Materials for Improved Chemiresistors

Carbon Solutions Inc
5094 Victoria Hill Drive
Riverside, CA 92506-1450

10/22/2007
to
05/07/2008
$100,000.00

We propose to develop a novel class of sensor materials based on chemically functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The proposed materials will be utilized in chemiresistor microarrays for improved detection of small molecule gases with reduced signal drift and extended lifetime. In addition, through chemical functionalization of the SWNTs their sensor properties can be tailored for enhanced sensitivity against small gas molecules. This concept exploits the unique electronic properties of SWNTs together with the tremendous potential of chemistry to modulate their electrical response to specific analytes.

H-SB07.1-007
Improved Chemiresistor Sensing Arrays for Detection of Small Molecules Gases

NBCHC080014 0711219
(FY07.1 Phase I)
Small Molecule Vapor Chemical Detection System using a low power and low cost MEMS based chemiresistor sensing Array

Seacoast Science, Inc.
2151 Las Palmas Drive
Suite C
Calrsbad, CA 92011-1575

10/22/2007
to
05/07/2008
$100,000.00

Seacoast Science, Inc. (SCS) proposes the research and development of polymers and materials for the rapid and sensitive detection of low molecular weight toxic industrial compounds (TICs) and other compounds of interest. These sensitive materials will be selected from a broad class of linear, hyperbranched, and network materials. The relative response of the materials will be used in a Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR) study and the first generation materials will be modified using the calculated interaction of the analytes with the material surface. Other metrics to evaluate the materials on the sensor platform are reversibility, baseline stability, and long-term The final optimization of these materials will allow the development of a sensor system will allow the real-time detection of a range of compounds from low molecular weight TICs to CWAs and explosives.

H-SB07.1-007
Improved Chemiresistor Sensing Arrays for Detection of Small Molecules Gases

NBCHC080026 0711226
(FY07.1 Phase I)
Stabilized Chemisorptive Microsensor Arrays for Small Molecule Gas Detection

Next Dimension Technologies, Inc.
1 West Mountain Street #11
Pasadena, CA 91103-3070

10/22/2007
to
05/07/2008
$100,000.00

The release of hazardous chemical vapors has the potential for severe casualties, and the detection of such chemicals is therefore critically important for homeland security. Despite this threat, there exists no commercially available, portable gas detection product that can quickly and cost-effectively sense most hazardous gases. In this Phase I project, we will develop a new generation of stable chemisorptive sensor materials that are highly sensitive towards reactive small molecule gases and that can withstand repeated exposures to multiple reactive gases. In addition, we will design and demonstrate methods for improving drift stability through development of sensor fabrication techniques and through the application of new drift-compensation algorithms. The technology builds on previous DHS-sponsored work in which the company demonstrated an initial prototype hand-held chemical detection system. In a continuing Phase II effort, we will validate an integrated detection system that incorporates the new sensors and drift-correction features into a next-generation prototype using simple, low-cost digital readout electronics. The outcome of this effort will be a detector based on microchemical sensor arrays that can be used to quickly and effectively detect the presence of hazardous chemical vapors.

H-SB07.1-008
Source Surveillance

HSHQDC-07-C-00090 0711159
(FY07.1 Phase I)
CZT Surveillance Camera

Aguila Technologies, Inc.
310 Via Vera Cruz, Suite 107
San Marcos, CA 92078-2631

09/25/2007
to
03/24/2008
$150,000.00

The improved surveillance of radioactive sources used in hospitals, research centers, food irradiations plants and other fully legal and sanctioned industries is paramount to interrupt the "terrorism value chain". This value chain relies on stealing radioactive sources from the legitimate before mentioned institutions to build radiological dispersal devices (RRD). Nowadays, radioactive sources are supervised using video cameras and sensor networks that signal the presence of radioactivity. The complexity of these systems grows exponentially as a function of the number of sensors in these networks. Moreover, the sensitivity, identification, and localization limitations and the relative ease of tampering of these systems impose a severe risk to the security of radioactive sources used today in the homeland and in other countries. Our approach, if shown to be practical and effective, will result in a surveillance system with the following benefits: - Ability to provide real-time localization of the radioactive sources in a laboratory with a spatial resolution of a few centimeters, - Ability to simultaneously reject scattered background and uptake from other natural sources - Ability to interface with current installed surveillance infrastructure to augment overall system performance, ability to inventory the sources under surveillance. The proposed system can also interface with databases used to keep track of the sources in the institution.

H-SB07.1-008
Source Surveillance

HSHQDC-07-C-00101 0711246
(FY07.1 Phase I)
Smart-Tagging with Expected Zonal Behavior, A System to Monitor Known Radioactive Sources

ZonTrak Inc.
2415 San Ramon Valley Rd
Ste 4-163
San Ramon, CA 94583-9790

09/25/2007
to
03/24/2008
$149,978.00

New approaches and techniques are required to effectively monitor and track radiological sources that are currently in use. We are proposing to develop a new class of monitoring and analysis methods that incorporate sensing information collected from zone-aware compact radiation detectors with built-in communications links. These intelligent tags are placed in designated areas where radiation sources are allowed for use and are remotely programmed with the radiation behavior expected within their respective zones (expected zonal behavior). They autonomously monitor themselves and their assigned zones and will use the existing buildings' IT infrastructure to automatically report (to a centralized server) violations to any of the set behaviors that they might encounter. In Phase I of this project we focus on developing a proof-of-concept state-of-the-art radiation sensor network for the purpose of providing zonal-based radiation monitoring. We will also identify algorithms that minimize the number of sensors required to police a given zone and to extract signatures of "removal" or "misuse" activity given the lower sensitivities of compact detectors and the presence of varying background interference in these environments. This research directly benefits from prior effort conducted by ZonTrak and leading nuclear research institutions. Government agencies and the private sector have growing requirements to protect the general public against accidental or deliberate nuclear contaminations. This creates a number of attractive commercial opportunities for our proposed system. ZonTrak will apply its 'concurrent development and commercialization' process to shorten the time to commercial products and production.

H-SB07.1-010
Development of High Reliability Occupancy Sensors

HSHQDC-07-C-00110 0711086
(FY07.1 Phase I)
Reliable Occupancy Sensor for Modified Straddle Carriers

Linea Research Corporation
1020 Corporation Way, Suite 216
Palo Alto, CA 94303-4317

09/25/2007
to
03/24/2008
$99,990.00

Each year, over 14 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of containers are transported into the U.S. from approximately 700 ports around the world. To facilitate the screening of containers, modified straddle carriers with plastic scintillators, neutron detectors, and NaI detectors (spectroscopic detectors) travels through rows of containers to perform radiation scanning. Portal monitors survey radiation during the traversal of the containers in the detection zone based on the signals from the occupancy sensor. In the proposed program, Linea Research Corporation will develop a robust occupancy sensor system that can reliably detect the following parameters: - Occupancy of the container within the detection zone. - Identification of the edges (ends) of separate containers even when the containers are placed with ends contacting each other. - Determination of straddle carrier speed with provision for an alarm if the maximum speed is exceeded. - Determination of the relative position (offset) in relation to the center line between the sensor panels with provision for an alam if threshold distance is exceeded. The sensor system will be designed to be robust enough to operate in the presence of various sources of noise such has direct sunlight, loud sounds, and vibration.

H-SB07.2-001
Spectroscopic Methods for Explosives Detection

NBCHC080051 0721020
(FY07.2 Phase I)
Explosive Substance Detection Spectrosopic Standoff System

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

01/15/2008
to
07/31/2008
$99,996.00

To address the HSARPA need for remote detection of vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED) and suicide-bomber threats, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Explosive Substance Detection Spectroscopic Standoff System (ESD3S) based on integration of infrared (IR) structure resonance modulation spectroscopy (SRMS) and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). The key element of the ESD3S is an ultralarge aperture narrowband light generator (NLG), which emits light at two periodically modulated wavelengths: test and reference. Absorption by explosive particles causes periodical scattering of readout light emitted by LED or intensity modulation of the test light passing through explosive vapors. Near-trace-level sensitivity is achieved by combining phase-detection electronics with the NLG ultralarge aperture. Detection on several absorption lines ("fingerprints") provides high selectivity against commonly encountered materials. The proposed system offers real-time, reliable detection of multiple solid or liquid explosive contaminants in variable environmental conditions (flexible ConOps). Operation in infrared spectrum and the NLG packaging design hide the detection process. In Phase I POC will demonstrate feasibility of the ESD3S prototype with direct measurements of explosives simulants in critical near-trace-level concentrations. In Phase II POC plans to develop and deliver the working engineering system for extended testing at an environmentally contained government facility.

H-SB07.2-002
Detection of Human Targets in Open Water

NBCHC080053 0721090
(FY07.2 Phase I)
High-Probability Weatherproof Remote Search and Rescue Seeker

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

01/15/2008
to
07/31/2008
$99,996.00

To address the HSARPA need for an innovative prototype system for real-time detection of human targets in seawater, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new automated High Probability Weatherproof Remote Search and Rescue Seeker (HiProWSer). This proposed system is based on a high-repetition-rate, pulsed, eye-safe laser, and will offer the capability to detect human targets on the sea surface with at least 90% probability, even during harsh weather conditions and at night. HiProWSer will not be seriously affected by aircraft speed or altitude. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of HiProWSer with a robust, executable system design and integration approach, including testing and support plans and simulation results. In Phase II, POC plans to deliver a working prototype for laboratory testing, followed by airborne testing, to prove the concept. The HiProWSer is relatively simple, highly effective, reliable, and low cost. Because of its remote control capability, it could be designed for use on UAVs. The system can thus be employed not only by the Coast Guard, Air Force, Navy, and Marines, but also has great commercial potential for law enforcement agencies and surveillance industries operating on the sea, rivers, and lakes.

H-SB07.2-003
Optimizing Remote Capture of Biometrics for Screening Processes

NBCHC080056 0721189
(FY07.2 Phase I)
Framework for Biometric Identification on the Move

AFIS and Biometrics Consulting Inc.
895 Dove Street, 3rd Floor
Newport Beach, CA 92660-2941

01/15/2008
to
07/31/2008
$99,606.00

We propose to develop a methodology and test and evaluation framework for optimizing the remote capture of multimodal biometrics for automated screening and identification to the practical extent possible while the individuals are on the move, walking through an automated gate or corridor at the airport or a walkway across the border. In Phase one we will establish a set of multimodal biometrics that, when applied, can establish the identity of an individual from remote biometrics measurements or touch-less capture devices. The Need: The key need is less intrusive screening with improved identification reliability or for DHS, better facilitation of travel and commerce while maintaining the total border security screening. Anticipated Benefits and Commercial Applications: The proposed framework will provide the methodology and best practice techniques to capture and integrate multimodal biometrics for various identity screening applications. These collective business rules will be the foundation for a new middleware product to optimally deploy multimodal biometrics. The development and testing of the new multimodal middleware application with remote sensing will be completed in Phase II. The proposed middleware product will address this market need and future market growth and will be the basis for our planned Phase III private funding and commercial offering success.

H-SB07.2-005
Secure and Reliable Wireless Communication for Control Systems

NBCHC080060 0721033
(FY07.2 Phase I)
Secure and Reliable Wireless Communication for Control Systems

Toyon Research Corporation
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117-3021

01/15/2008
to
07/31/2008
$100,000.00

Just as WiFi has become the de facto standard for wireless home networking, IEEE 802.15.4 is quickly becoming the standard of choice for machinery control, building monitoring, and a host of other industrial, commercial, and government control system functions. However, along with increasing popularity of this standard comes new risks in terms of cyber security. Indeed, as the wireless physical and medium access control (MAC) layers are now standard for many control systems, it is becoming easier to eavesdrop and spoof these networks. As these wireless control systems begin to be used for high-value applications, such as commuter transportation, plant automation, and traffic control, there is increasing risk of tampering. In this effort, Toyon proposes to develop a wireless control system that augments existing wireless technology in order to provide both the ease of plug-and-play sensor installation and operation as well as a high level of security. This will be provided through the use of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard operating in the 915 MHz ISM band as well as cognitive radio capability at the network layer for increasing link and overall network reliability. Both AES data encryption and two-way authentication will be used to provide data protection as well as connection verification.

H-SB07.2-006
Robust Algorithm Development for Multidimensional Chemical Analysis

NBCHC080064 0721124
(FY07.2 Phase I)
Multidimensional Chemical Analysis Using Statistical-Based Alignment Algorithms

Next Dimension Technologies, Inc.
1 West Mountain Street #11
Pasadena, CA 91103-3070

01/15/2008
to
07/31/2008
$100,000.00

Reliable identification of chemical hazards in multidimensional datasets is a key challenge for the deployment of effective chemical vapor detection systems. Much of the work to date has focused on, and is applicable only to, individual technologies. As new techniques are developed, many of the same data processing challenges recur. In Phase I of this project, we will conduct a feasibility study and develop a proof-of-concept software system that is applicable to multiple detection technologies and has the capability to detect low-level signals from generalized inputs. Our system is novel in that it uses a data fusion framework in which individual features are annotated with statistical measures or probabilities, and the results of various runs are combined statistically. Toward this end, we will translate several algorithms that have been successful in bioinformatic sequence analysis to the chemical analysis domain, extending them as necessary to handle richer data sets. In a Phase II continuation, we will develop a full beta version of the software and analyze data from several different technologies.

H-SB07.2-007
Neutron and Photon Generators for Advanced Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Interrogation and Verification Systems

HSHQDC-08-C-00020 0721001
(FY07.2 Phase I)
A fast pulse, portable fast neutron source for special nuclear materials detection

Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation
626 Whitney St
San Leandro, CA 94577-1116

01/31/2008
to
07/31/2008
$150,000.00

Alameda Applied Sciences Corp proposes to develop a fast pulse, portable, fast neutron source to detect SNM in the field. Our source offers a 20ns neutron pulse with a repetition rate up to 1kHz. The goal is to develop a source with 1000hrs of continuous operation at 1E8 n/s. The Ph I program will demonstrate the critical features of the source including pulse width, reproducibility and neutron yield. The commercial goal is to develop a replacement to existing neutron tube sources for applications that benefit from a fast neutron pulse.

H-SB07.2-007
Neutron and Photon Generators for Advanced Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Interrogation and Verification Systems

HSHQDC-08-C-00022 0721105
(FY07.2 Phase I)
High-Yield Pulsed Neutron Generator

Adelphi Technology, Inc.
981-B Industrial Road
San Carlos, CA 94070-4150

02/01/2008
to
07/31/2008
$150,000.00

A pulsed neutron generator is proposed for the detection of special nuclear material. A recently developed RF-excited plasma neutron generator will be pulsed to produce the activating neutrons whose pulse length is 100 microseconds with a fall time of less than 1 microsecond. High pulse repetition rates and high peak neutron yields can be otained depending upon the RF generator used. Using the T-T nuclear reaction, a novel emission geometry and an ideal acceleration voltage, the expected neutron energy will be less than 8.5 MeV to prevent the emission of interfering gamma-ray lines from other materials. In Phase I an existing neutron generator will be pulsed to produce the desired neutron-pulse time structure and a high peak yield. The present deuterium generator will be redesigned to support the safe use of tritium. The proposed system will be designed to be low cost, and mechanically and electronically robust, to ensure its wide distribution and use at ports throughout the world. Unlike penning diode sources the generator is expected to have a long lifetime. The project has a high probability of success based on the recent development by Adelphi and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of a new RF plasma neutron generator.

H-SB07.2-007
Neutron and Photon Generators for Advanced Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Interrogation and Verification Systems

HSHQDC-08-C-00023 0721210
(FY07.2 Phase I)
Intensity-Modulated Advanced X-ray Source (IMAXS)

PTSE, Inc.
2501 Monarch Street
Alameda, CA 94501-9316

01/29/2008
to
06/28/2008
$149,868.19

We propose to build an Intensity-Modulated Advanced X-ray Source (IMAXS) for cargo inspection systems that allows such systems to achieve 1 to 2 inches greater penetration for dense cargo (steel or equivalent) while, on average, producing the same amount, or less, radiation. Alternatively, cargo inspection systems using the new design may opt to have the same penetration as with conventional sources, but to produce about a factor of 3 less radiation. Another objective is to significantly reduce the overall size and weight of the linear accelerator (linac) system. We will investigate the comparative feasibility and technical merits of S-band (2998 MHz) and X-band (9303 MHz) linac designs for the IMAXS. In Phase I, the optimal design characteristics will be described, essential variables will be defined, and the IMAXS design will be developed. In Phase II, at least one linac prototype will be developed and tested with a high-energy X-ray inspection system produced for cargo inspection operations: the Rapiscan Eagle System.

H-SB08.1-004
Trace Explosives Sampling for Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosives Device (VBIED) Detection

HSHQDC0800078 0811037
(FY08.1 Phase I)
Enhanced Trace Explosive Sampling and Collection System for VBIED Detection

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

07/30/2008
to
02/13/2009
$99,987.00

To address the HSARPA need for enhanced sampling capabilities for trace level explosives for VBIED detection, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Enhanced Trace Explosive Sampling and Collection (ENTRES) system. This system is based on acoustic-streaming and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonance for particulate trace explosive residue dislodging, aerodynamics-based trace explosives intake mechanism, and nanoporous membrane-based preconcentration and collection. The ENTRES system will offer high throughput (six sampling per minute) and noncontact operations, high sampling efficiencies (>60%, about 6 times better than state-of-the-art), simultaneous sampling and collection of both particulate and vapor trace explosives, compatibility for interfacing to existing commercial explosives detectors, multiple collection points (>10) with large collection area (>10 cm^2), and low cost of ownership. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of ENTRES by theoretic analysis and prototype demonstration. In Phase II POC plans to optimize the ENTRES system. The ENTRES system will have numerous applications in Homeland Security. The system can be incorporated by TSA into its set of tools for screening people and baggage at airports, adding noncontact detection capability. Military applications of the ENTRES system will include screening of traffic into and out of military bases and secure areas.

H-SB08.2-004
Telecommunications Linking System

NBCHC090008 0821171
(FY08.2 Phase I)
Customs and Immigration Telecommunications Hyperlinking User

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

12/01/2008
to
06/15/2009
$99,993.00

To address HSARPAs need for advanced network tools and data mining enabled network interfaces, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Customs and Immigration Telecommunications Hyperlinking User Interface implemented via a Layered Hybrid Unbounded Graph Structure (CTHULHU) system. This proposed system is based on a novel multilayered architecture and implemented using graphhashtable hybrid data structures. CTHULHU offers automated case conflict notices, autonomously facilitates case deconfliction, allows assignment of weights to links between suspects and associates, and provides methods to manually createdelete links. The proposed CTHULHU directly helps Homeland Security by providing a costeffective solution. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of CTHULHU by developing a TRL 4(5 prototype, and demonstrating linking capability far in excess of HSARPAs four link requirement and its ability to compile information from a range of sources and present this in an easytoread format. In Phase II, POC plans to optimize the CTHULHU technology to a TRL 5(6 and expand its tool set to include voice pattern association and matching across cases, importing and exporting from additional external databases, and a full reporting suite. In addition to its DHS benefits, CTHULHU offers significant commercial benefits for users of data mining applications.

H-SB09.1-004
Decision Analytic Approaches for CBRN Terrorism Risk Assessment

NBCHC090039 0911100
(FY09.1 Phase I)
TRAnalyst(tm): Terrorism Risk Analyzer for CBRN Threats

Intelligent Systems Technology Inc
12122 Victoria Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90066-3118

05/22/2009
to
12/07/2009
$99,952.22

Project Summary. The analysis of CBRN terrorism risks is a national priority and a DHS imperative. To enable such analysis, requires tools that facilitate decision making based on identified risks. The tools available address risk assessment but not risk management. Furthermore, these tools do not model intelligent adversaries when conducting threat/risk assessment. This SBIR is concerned with developing and implementing a prototype decision analysis methodology for CBRN Terrorism Risk Analysis that overcomes these limitations. The methodology is intended to support Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) medical countermeasure decision making. The proposed approach augments Probabilistic Risk Analysis with simpler decision-analytic approaches for both risk assessment and risk management, and incorporates an intelligent adversarial model within its threat representation. Phase I of this effort is concerned with producing a functional prototype for CBRN Terrorism Risk Analysis that can be implemented and available on standard personal computers. Anticipated Benefits/Potential Applications. The overall methodology is expected to become part of strategic planning tools used in government and industry. Potential applications include cyber network infrastructure protection, business continuity planning, and counter-insurgency operations planning.

H-SB09.1-006
Highly Scalable Identity Management Tools

NBCHC090046 0911015
(FY09.1 Phase I)
Secure Identification and Authentication Mechanism

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

05/15/2009
to
11/30/2009
$99,997.00

To address the HSARPA need for a strong and reliable identification and authentication (I&A) mechanism for secure and reliable systems by enabling authentication of all system components and individuals, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Secure Identification and Authentication Mechanism (SIAM) technology. Proposed technology is based on the implementation of unique fingerprints for all system components and a novel unbreakable bit-level encrypting method. SIAM fingerprinting is software to unbreakably encrypt the component`s data, thus providing reliable component-level I&A; eliminating the security gaps of traditional methods; and detecting/preventing system misuse, intrusion, and exploitation. In Phase I, POC will demonstrate the feasibility of SIAM by developing and testing a system TRL 4 prototype based on existing IT technologies that will simulate enterprise level architecture and include all basic secure system components. In Phase II, POC plans to develop a full-scale TRL 6 system prototype capable of allowing reliable I&A for all system components, providing secure sensitive information sharing, and improving the management and distribution of electronic security policies and roles with a reduced system cost. SIAM will benefit government and commercial applications, including federal and border security systems, financial services, complex global enterprise networks, and Internet security.

H-SB09.2-002
Human-Animal Discrimination Capability for Unattended Ground Sensors

N10PC20008 0921050
(FY09.2 Phase I)
Human-Animal Discrimination Capability for Unattended Ground Sensors

Toyon Research Corporation
6800 Cortona Drive
Goleta, CA 93117-3021

11/01/2009
to
05/15/2010
$100,000.00

Handling false alarms produced by animals is a special problem for unattended ground sensors (UGS) because of the number of ways that animal signatures can mimic those of humans. Specifically, animal footsteps are impulsive, much like humans; the contact of a foot or hoof on the ground produces a sudden noise that rapidly fades away. Seismic, acoustic, and passive infrared (PIR) sensors are often plagued by false alarms and this often results in the distrust of such systems. Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a signal processing framework to eliminate false alarms produced by animals and allow for the detection of humans. Toyon`s approach consists of target detection and feature extraction modules that are specific to each sensor modality, namely seismic, acoustic, and PIR. Next, automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms will be applied on select features to conduct preliminary discrimination for each modality. Finally, a fusion algorithm will combine the ATR discriminations from each of the three modalities and output the consensus, high-confidence target declarations. Toyon`s efficient processing structure allows for a low-power, real-time solution that will be agnostic to UGS hardware systems. Toyon`s approach can easily be integrated with existing DHS and DoD platforms.

H-SB09.2-004
Software Testing and Vulnerability Analysis

N10PC20016 0921079
(FY09.2 Phase I)
Eliminating barriers to code quality and security with increased timeliness and accuracy of analysis

Coverity Inc.
185 Berry St.
Suite 1600
San Francisco, CA 94107-1740

11/01/2009
to
05/15/2010
$100,000.00

While modern static analysis tools have progressed significantly, barriers to adoption still exist due to the turnaround time between submitting code and producing analysis results, and due to the inability to model code paths which traverse externally supplied codeblocks, such as 3rd party library functions. This submission targets these two challenges from a number of directions, with intended deployment through the Open Source Hardening Project - Coverity Scan system.

H-SB09.2-005
Novel Diagnostic Imaging System

N10PC20019 0921117
(FY09.2 Phase I)
Next Generation IED Diagnostic Imaging System (NG-IDIS)

Spectral Labs Incorporated
12265 World Trade Drive, Ste E
San Diego, CA 92128-3771

11/01/2009
to
05/15/2010
$99,968.52

Spectral Labs Incorporated (SLI) proposes to conduct a study and perform analysis in order to identify technologies showing promise for breakthroughs in IED imaging in order to produce a Next Generation IED Diagnostic Imaging System (NG-IDIS). A key improvement in such a system would be to obviate the need for bomb technicians to approach the target multiple times to retrieve film or imaging plates or to get the appropriate image perspective. Additionally, an advanced system must minimize time on target, maximize the operators distance from the target, and enable acquiring all the required information in a single downrange trip. To make these improvements this SLI program will research all plausible physical phenomena to select those technologies which have an opportunity to lead to viable system configurations. The most promising of those will be numerically modeled to determine which has the best potential performance characteristics. Then a top level conceptual design will enable an independent feasibility evaluation of the selected approach. Particular technical issues that need to be addressed during this process include System Configuration, the Image Acquisition Process, and Image Quality as well as specialized features such as adaptability to Robotic Platforms.

H-SB09.2-007
Enhancing Training Effectiveness through Cognitive State Assessment

N10PC20026 0921009
(FY09.2 Phase I)
Interactive Neuro-Educational Technolgies (I-NET): Enhanced Training of Threat Detection

Advanced Brain Monitoring, Inc.
2237 Faraday Ave
Suite 100
Carlsbad, CA 92008-7209

11/01/2009
to
08/15/2010
$99,995.00

According to Department of Homeland Security (DHS), over 700 million pieces of baggage are screened for potential threats in the U.S. every year. Training methods for DHS screeners rely on conventional classroom instruction and on-the-job mentoring. By definition, a screener`s work is challenging because the search for threats demands sustained, focused attention while reviewing many images with very low probability of detecting an actual threat. Limitations of current training are inherent in the nature of the task; the required repetitious training over time degrades its effectiveness and induces fatigue, boredom and inattention. To begin to address these challenges, the investigators propose to integrate neuroscience-based evaluation technologies with multiple training approaches with the goal of creating an interactive learning, adaptive to the skill levels and needs of individuals. This innovative technology will be designed to increase training efficacy and reduce fatigue associated with current repetitive training methods. Envisioned products will incorporate the electroencephalogram (EEG) and other physiological metrics such as heart rate (EKG) into systems with continuous psychophysiological monitoring in combination with performance metrics including accuracy, speed and efficiency. Interactive adaptive computer-based training systems will facilitate interventions within the training environment to accelerate skill acquisition and provide quantitative evidence of success.

H-SB09.2-007
Enhancing Training Effectiveness through Cognitive State Assessment

N10PC20029 0921136
(FY09.2 Phase I)
EEG and Eye Tracking-based Measures for Enhanced Screener Training

Quantum Applied Science & Research, Inc.
5764 Pacific Center Blvd.
Suite 107
San Diego, CA 92121-4207

11/01/2009
to
08/15/2010
$99,935.56

QUASAR, EyeTracking Inc. (ETI), and Safe Passage International (SPI) will define a closed-loop training system that incorporates EEG and eye tracking technologies to improve Transportation Safety Officer (TSO) training efficiency and effectiveness. To minimize the implementation risk of the Phase II system demonstration, in Phase I the team will: 1. Measure the ability of EEG- and eye-tracking/pupillometry-based gauges to distinguish between trainees in early and late stages of computer-based training, and as compared with expert screeners. 2. Use these validated metrics to define concrete training paradigms to enhance screener training programs. 3. Generalize these paradigms to develop a training system for the broader skill set of TSOs, and that includes a user model describing how the various components will function and interact with both instructors and trainees. The resultant system will be built in a modular framework based on task decomposition of each stage of a training process and its related brain-based measurements and mitigations. As such the model generation framework will be generalizable to diverse training paradigms

H-SB09.2-008
Wearable Energy to Power and Operate Responder Tools (Wearable EPORT)

N10PC20030 0921060
(FY09.2 Phase I)
Demonstration of Wearable Power for Responder Tools

Jadoo Power Systems, Inc.
181 Blue Ravine Rd
Suite 120
Folsom, CA 95630-4704

11/01/2009
to
05/15/2010
$99,944.00

Today`s existing battery technology has major limitations that first responders are forced to accept due to the absence of alternatives. These limitations include; limited run times, excessive weight, poor shelf life, performance deterioration over-extended temperature ranges, significant quantities of hazardous materials and cycling degradation. Simply stated, battery technologies have not kept up with the performance demands of critical consumers. Jadoo Power proposes to demonstrate a 50-Watt, centralized wearable power system capable of powering first responder tools for eight hours. The proposed packaged solution will significantly decrease the first responder`s logistics burden, while providing the extended runtime required for critical operations. Additionally, Jadoo Power will deliver a CAD model of the potential packaging and architecture needed to integrate the power module into a wearable textile application. Funding this project will advance the development of wearable power products that meet the needs of federal and state first responders and commercial markets. The military and commercial markets that will be addressed include: fire and police personnel, emergency medical providers, commercial workers operating in remote areas, field computers operating away from a power grid, hikers and other recreation users, field lab technicians, surveying, professional photographers, broadcasting operators, construction workers, and others.

H-SB09.2-008
Wearable Energy to Power and Operate Responder Tools (Wearable EPORT)

N10PC20033 0921158
(FY09.2 Phase I)
Wearable Smart Battery for First Responder Applications

UtopiaCompression Corporation
11150 W. Olympic Blvd.
Suite 820
Los Angeles, CA 90064-1839

11/01/2009
to
05/15/2010
$99,997.74

UtopiaCompresion in collaboration with UCLA is proposing a Smart Battery system which will be compatible with a variety of energy sources, provide efficient energy management capabilities, will be manufactured on a flexible substrate for easy integration into first responder clothing, and provide support for emergency recharge and battery replacement. This work leverages our combined experience with DHS first responder physiological monitoring hardware and software issues. UC`s proposed Smart Battery system will have a number of applications within the government as well in the commercial market. Within the government applications, there are several large market segments which would benefit tremendously from the successful integration of the Wearable Smart Battery technology into their operational armamentarium. High potential markets are: First Responders including Fire Fighters and Disaster Intervention Personnel (Flood, Hazmat, Terrorist, Hurricane, etc); Telehealth/medicine; Military Operations; and Law Enforcement and Intervention Teams. Within the medical field, Paramedics, Emergency Services, and EMT are potential markets for deployment. However, the largest market opportunity within the medical community for Wearable Smart Battery is for remote patient monitoring requiring long durations of operation.