alert image
  • The DHS S&T SBIR Portal website will be undergoing scheduled maintenance and will not be available on the following dates and times:
    • 11:00 PM Saturday, June 29, 2019 EDT - 06:00 AM, Sunday, June 30, 2019 EDT
    We apologize for any inconvenience. If you need assistance, please contact the help desk at dhssbir@reisystems.com.

Abstracts of FY04.2 Phase I Awards
Back to Award List

H-SB04.2-001

Company

Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC d/b/a SIFT, LLC
211 N 1st St.
Suite 300
Minneapolis, MN 55401-1480

Proposal Information 0421009 - DOODLEBUG: A Distributed, Peer-to-Peer Approach to Cross-Domain Attack Correlation
Topic Information H-SB04.2-001 - Cross-Domain Attack Correlation Technologies
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050002
Abstract

SIFT`s DOODLEBUG approach provides a revolutionary approach to intrusion event correlation and fusion. Existing correlation systems are brittle, mostly rule-based systems that provide centralized correlation of intrusion events from very restricted areas. They require access to confidential information of the systems whose events they correlate, share those systems` false positive problems, and are difficult to configure and operate. By contrast, DOODLEBUG provides a lightweight event correlation solution that will operate over extremely large areas (e.g., continent-wide). The DOODLEBUG approach will build a robust, redundant, decentralized network for event correlation, producing rich results by incorporate very large amounts of information. Using large amounts of information, and combining it with relatively simple, and computationally inexpensive operations, DOODLEBUG will enable detection and identification of both known and novel attacks. In order to incorporate these large numbers of nodes, DOODLEBUG must stretch across not just administrative domains, but enterprises as well. To make this possible, DOODLEBUG will incorporate techniques for robust computation even in the face of malicious network members, and will provide strong assurances of the privacy of network nodes. DOODLEBUG will do this by combining a novel re-framing of the correlation problem with existing techniques for robust distributed computation and privacy protection.

Company

AGNIK, LLC
8840 Stanford Blvd. STE 1300
Columbia, MD 21045-5833

Proposal Information 0421012 - Cross-Domain Intrusion Detection using Privacy-Preserving Distributed Data Mining Technologies
Topic Information H-SB04.2-001 - Cross-Domain Attack Correlation Technologies
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050003
Abstract

This document proposes development of PURSUIT, a cross-domain intrusion detection system that relies upon state-of-the-art privacy-preserving distributed data-mining (PPDM) technology. PURSUIT has a distributed multi-agent architecture that supports formation of ad-hoc peer-to-peer, hierarchical, and other collaborative coalitions with due attention to the security and privacy issues. It will be equipped with PPDM algorithms so that the patterns can be computed and shared across the sites without sharing the privacy-sensitive data. The algorithmic foundation of the approach is based on combination of secured multi-party computation and randomized transformation techniques that allow sharing of attack patterns not the raw data. This research will be performed by Agnik, Tresys, and University of Minnesota (UNM) Army High Performance Computing research Center. Agnik team has a strong track record in distributed and privacy preserving data mining. Tresys is a security company with strong record in working with several major governmental agencies dealing with national security. The UMN team has a strong record in building intrusion detection systems, including the MINDS IDS that is currently being deployed in more than sixty different army locations. Being a plug-in IDS PURSUIT has the commercial potential to be marketed to all organizations that currently use one or more IDS.

Company

CounterStorm Inc.
15 W. 26th Street
7th Floor
New York, NY 10010-1002

Proposal Information 0421021 - A New Generation of Collaborative Cross-domain Security Technologies: Worminator
Topic Information H-SB04.2-001 - Cross-Domain Attack Correlation Technologies
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050004
Abstract

This proposal, a collaboration between Columbia University and System Detection Inc., concerns the research of a new collaborative, cross-domain security system, which we call Worminator, to detect and prevent the exploitation of and attack against networked computer systems, especially those critical to the nation's infrastructure. The core concept is to deploy a number of strategically placed sensors across the internet that detect stealthy attacks and share this information in real-time among anonymous sites as an early warning of impending attack. The alerts include "profiles" of attackers and suspect packet content signatures indicative of new zero-day attacks and worm outbreaks. We seek to establish scientific proof that correlating scan and probe alerts - specifically, the detection of intelligence gathering and probing activities that attempt to deliver malicious code - across many sites produces a more accurate means of predicting latter attack stages and that the system in question scales to large numbers of participating sites. The proof of concept system will also demonstrate the means by which information about sources and profiles of new attacks are represented efficiently, and effective methods of distributing alert information in real-time maintaining the anonymity and privacy among the participants.

Company

PnP Networks, Inc.
1525 Siesta Drive
Los Altos, CA 94024-6157

Proposal Information 0421200 - Intelligent Distributed Intrusion Detection via Collaboration
Topic Information H-SB04.2-001 - Cross-Domain Attack Correlation Technologies
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050005
Abstract

We propose to design a cognitive, automated Distributed Intrusion Detection System that correlates IDS data from nodes across multiple administrative domains. In Phase I we will demonstrate that for multiple types of attacks across multiple administrative domains, such a system can detect incipient attacks and inhibit their success, where no single local IDS can be reasonably expected to do so. We will build on our existing multicast IP protocol, Collaboration Bus (CB), that enables local IDS data sharing. CB also allows remote connection to external listeners outside a LAN or local administrative domain. We will design and deploy a cognitive algorithm on a CB listener that uses Bayesian methods to correlate incoming IDS data and make diagnoses and judgments about action(s) to take. Using Emulab at the University of Utah, we will deploy CB on at least three independent target administrative domains together with a remote listener. We will deploy at least three known effective distributed attacks, and target them in an isolated environment at the target domains. We will run the cognitive listener and confirm that it has made appropriate judgments. We will generate innocuous traffic and confirm that the cognitive listener has not erroneously detected attacks.

Company

DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation
1235 South Clark Street
Suite 400
Arlington, VA 22202-3264

Proposal Information 0421204 - DECISIVE ANALYTICS Corporation Response to Cross-Domain Attack Correlation Technologies
Topic Information H-SB04.2-001 - Cross-Domain Attack Correlation Technologies
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050006
Abstract

The DECISIVE ANALYTICS Team presents a suite of novel technique to perform distributed event correlation across distinct administrative domains while preserving privacy. Our approach for detecting attacks is based on the facts, prerequisites, and consequences of an attack. Such an approach allows us to detect well-known and stealthy attacks while also minimizing false alarms. Normal and suspicious activities are represented by graphs that are automatically constructed where nodes of the graph represent an event in the system, and arcs represent their relationships. We use data mining techniques such as clustering, classification, and frequent episodes mining to correlate events and attacks within an administrative boundary We perform event correlation across administrative boundaries by utilizing probabilistic statistical causality techniques, and preserve privacy by using Secure 2-Party Computational techniques such as multivariate statistical analysis to enable secure collaboration across domains. These techniques are implemented as a set of intelligent agents that collaborate across administrative domains and provide alerts to the security analyst as attacks against the Homeland's critical infrastructure are identified. We anticipate commercial benefits as we transition the technology to our partner, Cisco Systems, for deployment as part of their PIX Security Appliance. Potential spinoff applications include intelligence analysis and securities fraud.

Back to top

H-SB04.2-002

Company

CounterStorm Inc.
15 W. 26th Street
7th Floor
New York, NY 10010-1002

Proposal Information 0421001 - Real-time Malicious Code Detection in Network Traffic: The PAYL Payload Anomaly Detector
Topic Information H-SB04.2-002 - Real-Time Malicious Code Identification
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050007
Abstract

This proposal, a collaboration between Columbia University and System Detection Inc., concerns the research of a new payload anomaly detector, we call PAYL, that has been demonstrated to detect malicious code in network traffic. The core concept is to statistically model normal content and detect anomalous packet content indicative of malicious exploit code. The approach is very fast to compute, is state-less, does not parse the input stream, generates a small model, and can be easily modified to an incremental online learning algorithm to deal with changing network traffic. The method provides a compact signature of newly detected exploits, and preserves the privacy of content data. We believe the method will be highly competitive with other approaches that are based upon code emulation or simulation techniques. We focus on solving the false positive problem, typically associated with anomaly detectors, by employing other correlated models to identify true positives with high accuracy and confidence by analyzing only a subset of network data in each packet or connection. The successful results of the research and development will be commercialized by System Detection Inc., by embedding a new plug-in detector to their Antura security product for the prevention of new attack exploits.

Company

Avenda Systems
14125 Berry Hill Lane
Los Altos Hills, CA 94022-1840

Proposal Information 0421052 - MACE - Malicious Application Code Elimination
Topic Information H-SB04.2-002 - Real-Time Malicious Code Identification
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050008
Abstract

The IDS/IDP market will gain considerable traction as more organizations protect each application server instead of relying on network security. Proactive security as embodied in intrusion prevention will take a larger share of the market than reactive security as represented by intrusion detection. Avenda Systems proposes a solution called MACE (Malicious Application Code Elimination). It is a proactive real-time malicious code and payload anomaly detection system that focuses on application protocols; this will be extremely useful in defending against network attacks. This is a feature gap in the current IDS/IDP products. Avenda Systems has the expertise to develop a practical and highly effective malicious code detection system. MACE can be used by all organizations that have a computer network. The software modules developed in this project can be integrated into existing IPS/IDS solutions. The technologies employed in this product are practical and innovative and have not been implemented in commercially available comparable products. Organizations, both military and civilian enterprises, can use this system to defend their networks against attacks. Prototype development in Phase-I will provide the knowledge and foundation for building a complete product in Phase-II, and a commercially viable product in Phase-III.

Company

Cigital, Inc.
Suite #400
21351 Ridgetop Circle
Sterling, VA 20166-6561

Proposal Information 0421135 - A Heuristic Approach to Detecting Anomalous Protocol Payloads
Topic Information H-SB04.2-002 - Real-Time Malicious Code Identification
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050011
Abstract

Internet worms have become a common occurrence, but they have yet to inflict significant damage on our information infrastructure. Security experts predict the dawn of a new age of superworms that are far more dangerous than those we have encountered, and whose speed, stealth, and destructive power pose a significant threat. One promising approach to preventing the spread of future worms is to examine network traffic for unusual content. Certain types of content do not belong in particular application protocols, and yet such inappropriate content is often part of worm-based attacks. To combat the growing threat of Internet worms, Cigital proposes to develop a network traffic filtering capability based on the detection of anomalous data in network protocols. During this project we will validate our approach by applying it against known attacks and gathering information concerning its detection rate, false positive rate, and impact on system performance. The results will indicate the viability of expanding this approach to cover additional protocols and of extending our heuristics to cover additional categories of threats.

Company

Solidcore
3408 Hillview Ave Suite 180
Palo Alto, CA 94304-1321

Proposal Information 0421196 - Solidifying Malware Identification
Topic Information H-SB04.2-002 - Real-Time Malicious Code Identification
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050009
Abstract

Solidcore's approach to malware-ID is to decouple packet payload analysis from the capture of packets in transit and the resulting necessity of (a) network-speed analysis, (b) analysis of large numbers of packets, only a minority of which contain malicious payloads.Phase I activities will consist of extending Solidcore's existing technology so that it can perform both of: - malware identification (malware-ID) for new and unknown attacks as well as known attacks, and - real-time generation and dissemination of attack identification data for existing security mechanisms.

Company

Cs3 Inc.
5777 W Century Blvd
Suite 1185
Los Angeles, CA 90045-5600

Proposal Information 0421210 - Detection & Containment of Computer Epidemics Through Correlation of Communication Anomalies
Topic Information H-SB04.2-002 - Real-Time Malicious Code Identification
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050010
Abstract

This Phase I SBIR project investigates the detection and mitigation of fast-spreading computer infections that we call network epidemics. We wish to avoid packet payload inspection for several reasons. For one, increasing use of encrypted communication makes it impossible to interpret the payload. Further, payload anomaly analysis introduces delays that can be unacceptable when stopping fast-spreading epidemics. In our project, detection of a network epidemic is based upon communication anomalies and the detection of similar shifts in behavior in a very large number of machines across the network. It is our hypothesis that epidemics can be detected by analyzing just communication patterns of the machines, without reference to packet payloads. Innovations of our approach include efficient traffic summaries that can store traffic data indefinitely. We also include sophisticated correlation features that make it possible to detect shifts in behavior of many machines across an entire network. Both exponential and slow spreading epidemics are discovered using this approach. The approach also generates filters for the traffic that spreads the infection thereby providing a defense. In Phase I, we validate the approach with a proof of concept prototype, and analyze the scalability issues of the approach to larger and faster networks.

Back to top

H-SB04.2-003

Company

Nomadics, Inc.
1024 S. Innovation Way
Stillwater, OK 74074-1508

Proposal Information 0421078 - In-Situ Active Oxygen and Chlorine Catalytic Formation for Municipal Water Purification
Topic Information H-SB04.2-003 - Alternatives to Cl2 in Municipal Water Purification
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050026
Abstract

High chemical activity of chlorine and severe health effects after even short-term exposure to it make facilities that use chlorine are subject for potential terrorist attacks. The magnitude of such attacks on U.S. chemical facilities could easily exceed the loss of life suffered on September 11th. Despite the fact, there were no terrorist attack on chlorine-using facilities, a government study has shown that approximately 60,000 commercial chemical accidents occur every year, killing more than 250 people annually.We propose to use photocatalytic formation of chlorine and active oxygen for water treatment systems by using titanium dioxide (TiO2) as catalyst and sodium chloride (NaCl - table salt) as chlorine source. While oxygen and chlorine will oxidize and disinfect water supplies, chlorine will also insure residual effect of the treatment and prevent re-growth of organisms. Removal of the some of the organic contaminants with water will reduce amount of chlorinated byproducts and thus reduce of chlorine consumption for water purification

Company

MIOX Corporation
5500 Midway Park Place NE
Albuquerque, NM 87109-5800

Proposal Information 0421085 - On-Site Generation - The Safe, Effective, and Low Cost Disinfection Strategy
Topic Information H-SB04.2-003 - Alternatives to Cl2 in Municipal Water Purification
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050027
Abstract

On-site generation technology utilizes common salt (sodium chloride) which is made in to a dilute brine solution that is converted in an electrolytic cell to a chlorine-based liquid disinfectant. The chlorine component is important since the US EPA requires a chlorine disinfection residual value in drinking water in the United States. There are no hazardous materials used, consumed or produced in the process. The product produced is not hazardous since the concentration of the oxidant is less than 1%. Operating costs are very low compared to chlorine gas or commercial sodium hypochlorite (bleach) since consumbables are commonly available salt and electrical power. The commercial applications of this technology are significant world-wide and include potable water, wastewater, cooling towers, swimming pools, and other applications requiring a chlorine-based disinfectant. System sizes range from large municipal water applications to individual use devices for both the commercial and military sectors. Mixed-oxidant variants of the disinfectant have been demonstrated to reduce disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids) and provide other significant chemistry benefits for potable water, cooling towers, swimming pools, and other applications.

Company

Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824-4000

Proposal Information 0421098 - Municipal Water Purification(1000-559)
Topic Information H-SB04.2-003 - Alternatives to Cl2 in Municipal Water Purification
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050028
Abstract

Triton, in partnership with Prof Charles Gerba, an expert in drinking water disinfectant systems, has devised a replacement for chlorine as a primary disinfectant. The system which relies on chloramines and silver, has the potential to not only replace chlorine as the primary disinfectant but also serves as the secondary disinfectant. Additionally, the system reduces Disinfection-by-product formation and can be rapidly transitioned into water facilities at minimal capital cost.

Company

Fractal Systems, Inc.
108 4th Street
Belleair Beach, FL 33786-3213

Proposal Information 0421124 - High Surface Area Titanium Oxide Nanostructures for Photo-catalytic Water Remediation
Topic Information H-SB04.2-003 - Alternatives to Cl2 in Municipal Water Purification
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050029
Abstract

Fractal Systems Inc responds to HSARPA needs for the development of novel alternate technologies to Cl2 in municipal water purification purposes. Our recent experience, in collaboration with our consultants Prof. Paul (University of South Florida/Aqua Virotech, and Prof. Valsaraj, Louisiana State University), indicates that the purification of E.coli using high surface area TiO2 can be performed by the use of all the wavelengths of UV-visible light via surface modification of the oxide nanostructures and use of a specially designed photo-catalytic reactor. In phase I, we will synthesize and characterize the photo-catalyst; and design, fabricate and characterize membranes that will be used in photo-catalytic water remediation experiments in the photo-catalytic reactor. In Phase II, we will optimize our photo-catalyst material to achieve the highest photo-catalytic activity to ensure 100% pathogen remediation efficiency. We will optimize the photo-catalytic reactor construction to achieve maximum illumination and thus efficiency. We will also expand on the number of species to be detected to ensure viability of the technology towards commercialization in collaboration with one of the major water filter companies, located in the Tampa Bay area (Florida). Applications include private wells, bottlers, aquaculture, hospitals, food, restaurants, breweries, water systems, laboratories, pharmaceutical, dairies and counter-terrorism measures.

Company

Vortex Corporation
400 Prescott Lakes Parkway
Prescott, AZ 86301-6532

Proposal Information 0421138 - Interactive UV/Ozone System as a Chlorine Alternative
Topic Information H-SB04.2-003 - Alternatives to Cl2 in Municipal Water Purification
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050030
Abstract

Vortex Corporation, in partnership with Prof Charles Gerba and Dr. Rip Rice, proposes to address HSARPA`s need for an effective replacement for chlorine as a primary disinfectant. The proposed water disinfection system combines the synergistic effect of UV and Ozone to produce drinking water to EPA requirements. To date, a small scale device has been manufactured and has been shown to exceed National Sanitation Foundation standards for U.S. drinking water for microbes (>99.9999% reduction), cysts (>99.9999% reduction), lead (>99.9% reduction) and other contaminants. It is through this proposed effort that Vortex intends to validate the efficacy of this unique device for the inactivation of Klebsiella pneuminia, poliovirus and Cryptosporidium as well as for the reduction of disinfection-by-product formation.

Company

SMAHT Ceramics Inc.
181 W. 1700 S.
Salt Lake City, UT 84115-5247

Proposal Information 0421162 - Novel, NZP-Ceramics Based Water Treatment Process - "A Safe and Economical Approach"
Topic Information H-SB04.2-003 - Alternatives to Cl2 in Municipal Water Purification
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050032
Abstract

At the present time, Chlorine is an indispensible commodity when it comes to disinfecting municipal water supplies. Unfortunately, `chlorine` production and storage installations are under an ever increasing threat of terrorist attacks. Thus, there is a dire need to develop alternative municipal water purification technologies that are inherently more safe and less damaging in the event of a terrorist attack. Metallic elements such as `silver` have been known to possess excellent antimicrobial and bacteriostatic properties for a very long time. In recent years, several alternative "disinfection" approaches have emerged that utilize `silver` and other such metallic elements in conjunction with ceramic or polymeric carriers for various small scale applications. There is still considerable room for improving on the economics, safety, and scalability of such approaches through proper innovation. SMAHT Ceramics, herein, proposes the development of a novel, NZP-ceramics based water treatment technology that has better safety ("terrorism proofing"), performance and application potential than the state-of-the-art. If successfully developed, this technology is also likely to enable significant cost-savings by integrating the water filtration and purification steps. Numerous commercial applications, valued at billions of dollars, ranging from household items to chemical, biomedical, and aerospace supplies and equipment are imminent.

Back to top

H-SB04.2-004

Company

Isotron Corporation
1443 N Northlake Way
Seattle, WA 98103-8994

Proposal Information 0421048 - Large Scale Neutralization and Safe Removal of Toxic Industrial Chemicals
Topic Information H-SB04.2-004 - Wide-Area TIC Neutralization
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050012
Abstract

This proposal addresses the development of an advanced polymer-based system which possesses a reactive feature that serves to neutralize chemical agents and toxic industrial chemicals in-situ and on contact. The polymer system is designed to facilitate a rapid return-to-service of the contaminated area, such that emergency, rescue and other first response activities can take place safely during the decontamination phase. With the system in place, personnel exposure to the contaminant and cross-contamination of other sites will be significantly reduced or eliminated. Safe removal and disposal of the system can be carried out at an opportune time after decontamination and emergency response activities are concluded.

Company

Gumbs Associates, Inc.
11 Harts Lane
East Brunswick, NJ 08816-2040

Proposal Information 0421119 - THIN, STRIPPABLE COATINGS FOR WIDE-AREA TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS NEUTRALIZATION
Topic Information H-SB04.2-004 - Wide-Area TIC Neutralization
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050013
Abstract

This proposal addresses the need for thin, strippable and fast drying coatings for decontaminating surfaces exposed to wide-area toxic industrial chemicals. The goal is to encapsulate and neutralize the hazardous agents by using a low cost film, which is peeled from the surface after drying. The technical approach entails the formulation and evaluation of high molecular weight emulsion polymers with very low peel strength and high cohesive strength. Reactive materials will be added to the dispersion to neutralize the chemical agents by electron transfer reactions. The efficiency of decontamination will be evaluated to determine feasibility of the concept. Peelability of the activated coatings from various surfaces found in building interiors and exteriors will be determined in Phase I in efforts to demonstrate the broad spectrum utility and economic advantages of the proposed technology. Phase II will involve the application and evaluation of the coatings on large areas in the laboratory in efforts to demonstrate commercial viability. If the project is successful, it will provide the Nation with a low-cost method for decontaminating chemical, biological and radiological materials resulting from an attack by terrorists.

Company

Synergistic Advanced Technologies LLC
8987 East Tanque Verde Road
Suite 292B
Tucson, AZ 85749-9610

Proposal Information 0421126 - A Novel Wide-area TIC Neutralization Technology
Topic Information H-SB04.2-004 - Wide-Area TIC Neutralization
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050014
Abstract

Current methods of decontamination have shortcomings regarding their deployment. Cost of storage, requirement of personal protective equipment during its employment, related damage to substrates it is applied to, and clean-up costs are some relevant examples. This project aims to develop a wide-area TIC neutralization technology based on nanoparticles of mixed ionic-electronic conducting metal oxides and electrochemical methods. All components of the material are non-toxic, non-corrosive, thus this product is safe to use, and is friendly to the environment. The results of the planned Phase I work shall provide sufficient proofs for establishing the concept feasibility. Should the Phase I effort become successful and a Phase II project be funded, we will in the Phase II optimize the formulation of the material and the operation mode of the novel TIC neutralization technology, and field develop and conduct a commercially viable laboratory lab-scale demonstration for at least two wide-area TIC neutralization protocols.

Back to top

H-SB04.2-005

Company

Personnel Protection Technologies LLC
50 Mollbrook Drive
Wilton, CT 06897-4709

Proposal Information 0421025 - Concealed Explosive Detection
Topic Information H-SB04.2-005 - Innovative Techniques for Concealed Weapons or Explosive Detection at a Distance
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050015
Abstract

This proposal entails the development of an innovative technique for detecting the presence of concealed explosives at a safe distance. The specific mission is to deny the armed intruder his/her objective. Our novel active millimeter radar approach offers a low cost solution for long-range detection of a terrorist with concealed explosives and/or short-range detection of someone with a concealed weapon--using the same basic sensor. We will demonstrate feasibility of the salient physical principle of the proposed approach for explosives detection in a controlled outdoor environment. Realistic data gathering experiments and subsequent data analysis leading up to the demonstration will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed concept. Because of the low cost of the solution, wide deployment of this system is feasible by equipping public places down to the municipality level, checkpoints and border areas. In addition the underlying technology has applicability to other significant problems as well. The concept lends itself to the long-range detection of subtle changes in the environment associated with Improvised Explosive Devices and side attack mine placement. Inexpensive long-range detection of terrorists carrying hidden explosives or weapons will provide law enforcement and private businesses a margin of protection that is not currently available.

Company

Spire Corporation
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730-2396

Proposal Information 0421134 - Terahertz Imaging System for Concealed Weapon Detection
Topic Information H-SB04.2-005 - Innovative Techniques for Concealed Weapons or Explosive Detection at a Distance
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050018
Abstract

This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is aimed at developing an entirely new terahertz imaging system capable of detecting hidden weapons and explosives on subjects at safe distances. Compact and efficient semiconductor terahertz quantum cascade lasers are currently being developed by several companies (including Spire) and will soon be commercially available. Using these sources as illuminators, a small and portable imaging system utilizing one of several candidate imaging detector configurations is proposed. Terahertz radiation, with wavelengths in the submillimeter spectral region, is non-ionizing and low in energy, avoiding environmental safety issues. Working with the University of Massachusetts Lowell's Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory (STL) as a subcontractor, Phase I will investigate candidate imaging detection schemes and carry out calculations of anticipated system sensitivity and laser power requirements, with the goal of defining a technically feasible, portable concealed weapon detection system. The STL group has already demonstrated non-portable terahertz-based hidden weapon detection systems using gas lasers and heterodyne receivers. The proposed design of a portable THz imaging system will utilize THz atmospheric transmission data, and attenuation coefficients of relevant materials. During Phase II, a breadboard imaging system will be fabricated and demonstrated with surrogate hidden weapons and explosives. Anticipated Benefit/Potential Commercial Applications of the Research or Development. Terahertz radiation is absorbed by water-containing and biological materials but relatively transparent in other materials such as paper and clothing. The commercial availability of terahertz imaging systems will have a strong impact on homeland defense, military surveillance, biomedical technology, agricultural inspection, transportation monitoring, analytical instruments, and high-resolution spectroscopy applications. Medical applications include non-ionizing dental diagnostics, DNA identification, chemical agent detection and analysis, and non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetics. Transportation applications include detection-at-a-distance moisture (rain and fog) sensors on highways and rail tracks.

Company

Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217

Proposal Information 0421144 - Polychromic Imaging for Standoff Detection of Explosives and Weapons
Topic Information H-SB04.2-005 - Innovative Techniques for Concealed Weapons or Explosive Detection at a Distance
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050019
Abstract

Terahertz (THz) radiation imaging and sensing is one of the most promising technologies for standoff detection of concealed threats. New THz sources and detectors are emerging on the commercial market. Existing methods for data processing and image construction, however, are either too cumbersome or fail to provide much of the required data for detecting concealed weapons and explosives. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes an innovative solution to these shortcomings. By integrating the use of polychromic imaging, advanced spectral analysis, synthetic aperture processing, fusion with conventional surveillance data, the IOS approach will produce real-time detection and imaging of concealed threats at a distance. What is novel in the proposed effort is that terahertz spectroscopy will be combined with conventional video imaging to enhance identification and to enable the tracking of potential threats at standoff distances. The potential benefits of this program are enormous, and include saving many lives, and neighborhoods. Commercial potential is in the $Billions. Images from security systems showing physiological details have caused some concern. IOS`s approach will eliminate this possible embarrassment. In Phase II, IOS will design a Phase II Prototype System to obtain Multispectral THz Reflection Images at distances of 50 m or greater.

Company

WaveBand Corporation
17152 Armstrong Ave
Irvine, CA 92614-5718

Proposal Information 0421180 - A Novel Sensor for Concealed Object Detection
Topic Information H-SB04.2-005 - Innovative Techniques for Concealed Weapons or Explosive Detection at a Distance
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050020
Abstract

Building on previous and ongoing research in concealed object detection (COD), WaveBand Corporation (WaveBand) proposes a novel approach specifically aimed at extended range of detection with a goal of up to 50 meters. Among various sensors tested and proposed to date, those working in the millimeter wave (MMW) spectral region have been proven to have the unique characteristics of providing adequate clothing penetration while attaining acceptable spatial resolution at a distance. The Phase I research effort will focus on the demonstration of the feasibility of the proposed approach through both prototype design and characterization as well as critical experimental demonstration of the system principle. The prototype of the system built in Phase II is expected to provide a detection range superior to all known COD systems while operating with minimal latency, regardless of atmospheric conditions, illumination, indoor or outdoor settings. Detection and rough classification functions are expected to be automated with minimal operator supervision needed. Utilizing mostly commercially available components, we expect the system to be affordable, even in low quantity production.

Company

Pharad, LLC
797 Cromwell Park Drive
Suite V
Glen Burnie, MD 21061-2540

Proposal Information 0421192 - Electromagnetic Concealed Weapons Detection at a Distance
Topic Information H-SB04.2-005 - Innovative Techniques for Concealed Weapons or Explosive Detection at a Distance
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050001
Abstract

Pharad proposes to design a cost effective portable electromagnetic concealed weapons detection system that can be readily installed in a public areas, without interrupting the flow of human traffic. The system uses complex resonances for the identification of known targets, providing significant cost and size benefits over conventional imaging approaches. Our solution will be able to accurately detect and identify concealed weapons, metallic and non-metallic, at distances > 50 meters. Another unique advantage is that weapon detection is independent of the excitation manner. To minimize the size of the electromagnetic weapons identifier sensor we will use millimeter-wave frequencies as the interrogation signals, which also provides greater immunity to interference from other wireless services. In addition, a millimeter-wave based system provides a large available bandwidth that can be used to interrogate the target, increasing the resolution for target recognition. We will also incorporate efficient signal processing algorithms to ensure accurate determination of the presence of a known target.

Company

Luna Innovations Incorporated
1 Riverside Circle
Suite 400
Roanoke, VA 24016-4962

Proposal Information 0421199 - Distant Detection of Concealed Weapons
Topic Information H-SB04.2-005 - Innovative Techniques for Concealed Weapons or Explosive Detection at a Distance
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050016
Abstract

Luna Innovations is investigating an ultrasonic/acoustic detection system for concealed weapons and explosives for the Department of Justice. Using ultrasonic beams to achieve a focal spot on the target, this device generates acoustics to probe under clothing. Acoustics, derived from nonlinear interactions of two beams with different frequencies, mix and penetrate clothing to hear what is inside. The DOJ project is for a small, portable device at shorter distances. Building on that success, we propose a scaled-up system optimized for relevant distances desired by HSARPA. Significant design issues must be resolved to make this step. This SBIR will determine source parameter designs analyzing parametric vs. crossed-beam generation optimizing the probing frequencies. These findings permit a systems-level design for a long-distance field prototype to detect and classify anomalous concealed elements carried on a human body. The benefits of this approach are that the data are derived from mechanical parameters such as impedance, resonance, and geometry which are hard to hide from a sound beam. This brings an independent view of a suspect. The measurement is non-injurious, potentially light-weight, low-cost and portable. Commercial applications include security, inspection, quality control and medical devices.

Company

Picometrix LLC
2925 Boardwalk
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-6765

Proposal Information 0421214 - Stand-Off Terahertz Imaging and Spectroscopy Detection of Concealed Weapons and Explosives
Topic Information H-SB04.2-005 - Innovative Techniques for Concealed Weapons or Explosive Detection at a Distance
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050017
Abstract

We propose to develop the design for a stand-off active terahertz imaging and spectroscopy system prototype for the detection of concealed threats at ranges up to 50 meters. Terahertz imaging has the potential to reveal concealed explosives; metallic and non-metallic weapons (such as ceramic, plastic or composite guns and knives); flammables; biological agents; chemical weapons and other threats. Because terahertz imaging employs safe non-ionizing radiation that penetrates clothing, people may be routinely scanned. Images can have sub-millimeter resolution, superior to longer wavelength techniques. Explosives, chemical weapons, and biological agents posses a spectral fingerprint in the terahertz regime. In phase I, elements of a long range time domain imaging system will be demonstrated. Parameters such as range, field of view, resolution, depth of field, size, weight and cost will be estimated.

Back to top

H-SB04.2-006

Company

Porticos, Inc.
2701 Aerial Center Parkway
Suite 102
Morrisville, NC 27560-7444

Proposal Information 0421020 - DEVELOPMENT OF A DUAL-STAGE COOLING GARMENT UTILIZING LIQUIFIED CARBON DIOXIDE
Topic Information H-SB04.2-006 - Improved and Innovative Cooling Garments for Emergency Responders
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050021
Abstract

Emergency-responders, soldiers, industrial workers, and athletes are often required to work in hot environments, usually while encumbered with heavy protective gear. These individuals are especially susceptible to heat-stress. The mental and physiological symptoms can result in severely impaired performance, which can be disastrous in a dangerous environment. Porticos, Inc. proposes to develop a Personal Cooling System (PCS) that will efficiently transfer body-heat to the surrounding environment in a controlled and adjustable manner. The PCS, envisioned as an upper-body garment, is based on the use of a liquified atmospheric gas as both a thermal accumulator and a mass-transport cooling medium. Preliminary thermodynamic calculations indicate that all HSARPA performance goals are achievable by implementing the system described in this proposal. Porticos will demonstrate technical feasibility and complete an engineering design based on the PCS concept.

Company

Aspen Systems, Inc.
24 St. Martin Drive
Marlborough, MA 01752-3060

Proposal Information 0421030 - Improved Vapor Compression Personal Cooling
Topic Information H-SB04.2-006 - Improved and Innovative Cooling Garments for Emergency Responders
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050022
Abstract

The use of protective garments and/or body armor combined with warm ambient environments is a potentially lethal combination. We propose to develop a very small man-portable, self-contained cooling system based on our vapor compression technology. We believe that a vapor compression based system is the only candidate that can meet the size and weight goals of the mission. Aspen Systems is uniquely qualified to develop a miniature personal cooling system for emergency responder applications. We have successfully designed, fabricated, tested, and licensed a small rotary compressor that literally fits in the palm of your hand. Our compressor weighs just over one pound and measures about 2.2" in diameter by 2.8" long. It is capable of producing 300 Watts (1024 Btu/hr) of cooling in a 120 degree F ambient environment. We will continue to push the envelope in miniaturization as we plan to reduce the cooling system size by about 50% in this program resulting in a "Fanny-Pack" sized vapor compression cooling unit. Aspen's miniature personal cooling unit developed in this program will decrease the likelihood of heat stress related injuries or deaths. Potential applications of our product are numerous including uses in the military (helicopter and fixed wing pilots, dismounted soldiers, special forces, flight deck and armored vehicle personnel, and search and rescue), hazardous waste clean-up, explosive ordinance disposal, firefighters, law enforcement, mining, utility workers, metal processing, power plants, chemical/pesticide applicators, race car drivers and pit crews, construction workers, recreational users (golfers, hikers, etc.), farm workers, costume characters, and medical applications like multiple sclerosis patients, post operative treatment, hyperthermia, and treatment of stroke and heart attack victims.

Company

Triton Systems, Inc.
200 Turnpike Road
Chelmsford, MA 01824-4000

Proposal Information 0421097 - New Two-Phase Acoustic Chillers For Controlled Personal Cooling (1000-555)
Topic Information H-SB04.2-006 - Improved and Innovative Cooling Garments for Emergency Responders
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050023
Abstract

Novel concepts in thermoacoustic refrigeration are considered for use in a cooling garment for civilian or military first responders. Thermoacoustic refrigerators are of interest as alternatives to conventional vapor compression devices, since they can be very compact, using a minimum of simple, inexpensive parts, and offer features such as variable cooling capacity (allowing proportional control) and ready scalability to smaller sizes in ways that conventional vapor compression refrigerators are not capable. Backpack-sized devices exist now, and our team will investigate the minimum size that can meet the cooling requirement. The coefficient of performance (COP) of small thermoacoustic refrigerators is normally about 20% of the ideal (Carnot cycle) COP, which is actually better than similarly scaled vapor compression coolers which currently rate at about 10%. We propose a method to further enhance the efficiency of thermoacoustic chillers by eliminating one of the subsystem components that usually cause performance losses. The heat exchanger that is normally used at the end of the thermoacoustic "stack" will be removed by designing the system with a condensing working fluid that bears the thermal load more efficiently.

Company

NanoPore Incorporated
2501 Alamo SE
Albuquerque, NM 87106-3220

Proposal Information 0421104 - Ultra-lightweight modular cooling system
Topic Information H-SB04.2-006 - Improved and Innovative Cooling Garments for Emergency Responders
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050024
Abstract

Active cooling of HAZMAT and SWAT team members can significantly improve their performance in critical situations. However, current cooling systems are heavy, bulky, and don`t provide adequate cooling rates. By employing a new meso-channel adsorption bed using high capacity, sheet desiccants operated in a ambient-air cooled cross-flow mode, cooling capacities of 50 to 125 W can be generated with weights that are 2-5 times less than previous adsorption coolers or phase change materials such as ice. Depending upon the mode of operation, the cooler can produce dry air for sweat evaporation, chilled air, or chilled water. For this project, we will produce chilled water for circulation through a garment developed by Oklahoma State University under funding from the Department of Homeland Security`s Memorial Institute for Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT). This new cooler will be developed and integrated into the MIPT garment in Phase I. During Phase II, weight, performance and design optimization will be undertaken in addition to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing process. In addition to the first responder market, this cooling device has a number of commercial applications in sports, medicine, and extreme weather situations.

Company

Rini Technologies Inc
3267 Progress Drive
Orlando, FL 32826-3230

Proposal Information 0421145 - Lightweight and Efficient Cooling System for First Responder Suits
Topic Information H-SB04.2-006 - Improved and Innovative Cooling Garments for Emergency Responders
Award/Contract Number NBCHC050025
Abstract

Clothing that protects first responders from chemical, biological, and nuclear threats can subject the individuals to heat stress. These hazardous environments require the use of PPE with level A protection, which can significantly diminish the ability of the body to reject heat to the external environment, leading to symptoms ranging from muscular weakness, dizziness and physical discomfort to more severe, life-threatening conditions such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke. RTI proposes to develop a miniature refrigeration unit, which utilizes a vapor compression cycle, to transfer heat from the encapsulated individual to the outside environment. This project will provide a portable cooling unit with a combination of performance, reliability, size and weight that is currently not available or possible from conventional designs. Specifically, the proposed cooling system will produce 425BTU/hr (125W) of cooling to a water vest with an average water temperature of 25 degree C, weigh 1.6kg (without battery), have a volume of 1.0L and require 50W of electrical power. The Phase I effort will concentrate on the thermodynamic cycle, system configuration, material selection, material testing and enhancement through thin film solid lubrication applications, and fabrication of a prototype compressor. Design of the remaining system, components and system testing and integration would be undertaken in Phase II.

Back to top
Back to Award List