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Abstracts of FY08.1 Phase I Awards
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H-SB08.1-001

Company

Veridical Research and Design Corporation
211 W. Main - Lower Level
PO Box 6503
Bozeman, MT 59771-6503

Proposal Information 0811132 - OBSERVE: Ocular-Based Screening Evaluation and Real-time Verification Examination
Topic Information H-SB08.1-001 - Assess Ability to use Eye Tracking and Pupil Dilation to Determine Intent to Deceive
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800070
Abstract

To support DHS's goals of developing new physiological and behavioral sensor technologies for homeland security operations that determine intent to deceive, Veridical Research and Design Corporation proposes to determine the feasibility of developing a conceptual framework and architecture for an ocular-based method of detecting deception intention. The approach is to empirically derive ocular-based measures of cognitive load and arousal, including pupil diameter, blinks and gaze, and instantiate the findings as a model, called OBSERVE (Ocular-Based Screening Evaluation and Real-time Verification Examination). The output will be used to define a theoretical framework that will serve to delineate the conceptual architecture of a system called OBSERVER (Ocular-Based Screening Evaluation and Real-time Verification Examination Remotely) that can be employed to non-intrusively assess an individual's intent to deceive.

Company

Bio-Behavior Analysis Systems, LLC
6744 CLAYTON RD
STE 307
St. Louis, MO 63117-1639

Proposal Information 0811137 - Assess Ability to use Eye Tracking and Pupil Dilation to Determine Intent to Deceive
Topic Information H-SB08.1-001 - Assess Ability to use Eye Tracking and Pupil Dilation to Determine Intent to Deceive
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800083
Abstract

We are utilizing the output from eye trackers to develop procedures to identify momentary lapses in alertness. The intent to deceive should be associated with the converse, momentary increases in alertness. We review literature dealing with the issue of deception as reflected in: pupil diameter, saccadic eye movements, eye blinks, minor eye movements, vergence eye movements, and conjugate oculomotor activity, as well as two aspects of behavior that can be monitored with eye tracker and output from a mouse. The specific question to be investigated in this phase I effort is: Can a battery of bio-behavioral measures (identified above) successfully detect deceptive responses about personally relevant material? We describe the specifics of the experiment to be conducted. Data analytic techniques that have already been developed in our laboratory will be used to evaluate data and identify optimal measures to predict deception.

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H-SB08.1-002

Company

Synkera Technologies Inc.
2605 Trade Centre Ave, Suite C
Longmont, CO 80503-4605

Proposal Information 0811087 - Miniature and Reliable Chemical Sensors
Topic Information H-SB08.1-002 - Miniature Chem/Bio/Explosive Sensors
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800074
Abstract

This project will develop a robust and inexpensive miniature sensor system that will enable ubiquitous chemical detection through integration into hand held devices such as cellular phones or attachment to other personal wireless devices that provide for sensor integration, geo-location, and contain an independent power supply. The sensor technology is enabled by advances in nanomaterials and ceramic micromachining and features a combination of fast response, broad selectivity and with low (ppb) detection limits without preconcentration or sampling.

Company

Boston MicroSystems, Inc.
30-H Sixth Road
Woburn, MA 01801-1758

Proposal Information 0811110 - Miniature MEMS-based Chemical & Explosives Detector
Topic Information H-SB08.1-002 - Miniature Chem/Bio/Explosive Sensors
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800080
Abstract

Boston MicroSystems (BMS) proposes to develop a cell-phone sized instrument for detecting hazardous chemical and explosive threats. The instrument is based on BMS(TM) PicoSensor (TM) chemical and explosives detection platform, which has been developed in part under DHS support and is capable of sensing explosives and toxic chemicals at ppb and even ppt (trillion) levels. The PicoensoR(TM) consists of a MEMS flow-through preconcentrator integrated via flip-chip packaging with a MEMS sensor array including gravimetric piezoelectric resonators, chemiresistive sensors and capacitive sensors. Using a new BMS innovation, the opportunity now exists to develop ultra-miniature, low power drive-sense electronics and wireless communications for the PicoSensor(TM) using commercial off-the-shelf RF and cellular components. These electronics will be integrated with a rechargeable battery and a miniaturized version of BMS' vapor-phase sampling system, and together allow the PicoSensor(TM) -based instrument to be miniaturized to dimensions of 2" x 4" x 3/4". BMS will develop, assemble and deliver to DHS a prototype of the ultra portable instrument for detecting hazardous chemicals and trace explosives by the end of phase II. The miniature instrument will enable ubiquitous chemical and explosives detection as part of large distributed alert networks that improve situational awareness for mission personnel.

Company

QuantaSpec Inc.
240 Battery Street
Suite #102
Burlington, VT 05401-5214

Proposal Information 0811206 - Reagent-less Miniature Wireless Chemical Biological Explosive Sensor
Topic Information H-SB08.1-002 - Miniature Chem/Bio/Explosive Sensors
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800084
Abstract

This project will design a miniature wireless reagent-less sensor to detect chemical, biological, and explosive materials in solid, liquid, and vapor form. These sensors are needed to implement a wide area hazard detection network to protect the health and welfare of the public. QuantaSpec will integrate its standoff explosive detector and chemical vapor detector to fit in a cell phone. QuantaSpec will also adapt its biological identification methods to fit in a cell phone. QuantaSpec`s past efforts have demonstrated standoff detection of trace explosives, chemical vapor detection and 100% accurate species and strain level reagent-less identification of bacteria. Miniaturization of these sensors is now possible due to advances in quantum cascade laser technology. This project will design DIAL, ICLAS, and ATR IR spectroscopy sensors for integration into a cell phone. These sensors are needed to protect the lives of US citizens.

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H-SB08.1-003

Company

Open Research Inc
104 Fountain Green Lane
Gaithersburg, MD 20878-7851

Proposal Information 0811053 - Quantitative Risk Management using Bayesian Networks
Topic Information H-SB08.1-003 - Mapping of Long-term Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Impacts
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800087
Abstract

Since 9-11, the U.S. has been more vulnerable to diffuse threats. In response to the growing threat of terrorism's attack on CI/KR and all kinds of natural and/or manmade disasters, the U.S. government must adopt more effective risk management to remediate risks and mitigate the consequence of risks. A risk is defined as a function of the likelihood of a given threat exploiting a particular vulnerability and the resulting adverse impact on assets and individuals. We propose a graph-model-based approach to explore probabilistic relationship among threats, vulnerabilities, impacts, and countermeasures. Graphical model is not only used as a visualization tool but also as causal-reasoning and decision-making assistant to rationalize and justify risk-based decision. The graph model can be constructed systematically and incrementally by accommodating experts' knowledge and the knowledge learnt from intelligence sources. Once the model is established, we can perform probabilistic inference from which risk-based decisions can be made quantitatively. This proposal extends our previous work on proactively preventing network attack and uses ORI's patent-pending techniques to automate data collection from massive and dynamic intelligence sources.

Company

Applied Biomathematics
100 North Country Road
Setauket, NY 11733-1300

Proposal Information 0811103 - Landscape vulnerability maps for rare dangerous events
Topic Information H-SB08.1-003 - Mapping of Long-term Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Impacts
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800086
Abstract

To apportion resources wisely, decision makers need to estimate the location and importance of threats and vulnerabilities at local, regional, and national landscape levels. Dynamic, high quality, geographically explicit data are becoming more and more available for use as inputs to such predictions. However, methods are required for analyzing this data and producing maps of the likelihood of severe future events. This project will dynamically map the relative attractiveness of geographic locations to harm-causing events. Ecological modeling techniques that predict habitat suitability, species abundance, and propensity for habitat disturbance and change due to natural disasters and the impact of human activities provide the basis for the development. Findings from risk perception and communication research will guide the output visualization technique, tailoring the hazard depiction to the decision context and exploring alternate methods for communicating projection uncertainty. Commercial applications of the new technology (apart from homeland security) include maps of exposure to risk of loss from natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and wildfires, as well as maps for planning the conservation of rare and endangered species and the use of natural resources.

Company

High Performance Technologies, Inc.
11955 Freedom Drive
Suite 1100
Reston, VA 20190-5683

Proposal Information 0811216 - Current Event - Future Outcome (CEFO) Predictive Framework
Topic Information H-SB08.1-003 - Mapping of Long-term Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Impacts
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800079
Abstract

Critical infrastructure is the backbone on which this country's success and prosperity are built. As a highly technically advanced nation, we rely heavily on our infrastructure to support all of the challenges of everyday life from providing power, heat, and water to communications, financial transactions, emergency services, and countless other functions without which this country would cease to operate. This foundation, however, is vulnerable. While a considerable number of tools exist to aid decision makers in examining the impact of well defined disaster events, little research has been done to provide real-time analysis and decision support for emerging, dynamic threats. Under this SBIR, High Performance Technologies Inc. proposes the creation of the Current Event - Future Outcome (CEFO) Predictive Framework, which will leverage modern advances in predictive capability with mathematical sensitivity and factor analysis to provide enhanced support for analysts and policy makers as events are occurring. Through the use of a three-layered architecture, CEFO will allow users to identify and prioritize key, event specific factors throughout all stages of the event chain and provide predictive insight into the potential impact and associated risks of emerging threats.

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H-SB08.1-004

Company

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

Proposal Information 0811037 - Enhanced Trace Explosive Sampling and Collection System for VBIED Detection
Topic Information H-SB08.1-004 - Trace Explosives Sampling for Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosives Device (VBIED) Detection
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800078
Abstract

To address the HSARPA need for enhanced sampling capabilities for trace level explosives for VBIED detection, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Enhanced Trace Explosive Sampling and Collection (ENTRES) system. This system is based on acoustic-streaming and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonance for particulate trace explosive residue dislodging, aerodynamics-based trace explosives intake mechanism, and nanoporous membrane-based preconcentration and collection. The ENTRES system will offer high throughput (six sampling per minute) and noncontact operations, high sampling efficiencies (>60%, about 6 times better than state-of-the-art), simultaneous sampling and collection of both particulate and vapor trace explosives, compatibility for interfacing to existing commercial explosives detectors, multiple collection points (>10) with large collection area (>10 cm^2), and low cost of ownership. In Phase I POC will demonstrate the feasibility of ENTRES by theoretic analysis and prototype demonstration. In Phase II POC plans to optimize the ENTRES system. The ENTRES system will have numerous applications in Homeland Security. The system can be incorporated by TSA into its set of tools for screening people and baggage at airports, adding noncontact detection capability. Military applications of the ENTRES system will include screening of traffic into and out of military bases and secure areas.

Company

Excellims Corporation
20 Main Street
Acton, MA 01720-3575

Proposal Information 0811050 - Non-Contact Trace Explosives Sampling and Preconcentration for Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Device Detection
Topic Information H-SB08.1-004 - Trace Explosives Sampling for Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosives Device (VBIED) Detection
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800077
Abstract

Ion mobility spectrometer based explosives trace detectors (ETD) have been widely used in airport check points, ports of entry, government buildings, and other high security facilities. Most of these systems require manual collection of trace particles from vehicles via direct swabbing of surface areas of interest. Sample collection efficiency and inconsistency pose significant challenges to the effectiveness of the deployed ETD systems. Combined with current COTS ETD systems, a non-contact explosive sampling and preconcentration method is proposed to enhance collection efficiency and probability of detection using non-contact airflow and direct chemical interactions. The non-contact trace sampling method is intended for screening common vehicles and can be automated for trace detection of moving vehicles. In addition, the new sampling method will allow sampling larger areas with equal or better sampling and detection throughput than current "swiping" methods.

Company

Enertechnix, Inc.
P.O. Box 469
Maple Valley, WA 98038-0469

Proposal Information 0811135 - TRACE EXPLOSIVES PARTICLE AND VAPOR SAMPLE COLLECTION SYSTEM USING CONCENTRATION OF SCAVENGER PARTICLES
Topic Information H-SB08.1-004 - Trace Explosives Sampling for Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosives Device (VBIED) Detection
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800076
Abstract

Enertechnix proposes to adapt its novel aerodynamic lens aerosol concentration technology to provide high flow rate, high efficiency sampling of particles and vapors for use in the detection of Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosives Devices. Our approach combines forced air jet(s) for dislodging particles and vapors from the vehicle surfaces, concentration and collection of dislodged particles, and scavenging of explosive vapors on artificially introduced aerosol particles containing adsorbent polymers tuned to the molecular characteristics of explosives. These particles will be concentrated using our aerosol concentrator and collected on the walls of a centrifugal micro-impactor. The explosive particles and vapors will be desorbed and delivered to a downstream detector at flow rate appropriate for the selected detector. All these functions will be implemented in a compact, modular, low power, low cost device. The proposed device can be deployed as an array of samplers in a drive-through inspection portal or as a stand-alone (possibly hand-held) device. The proposed explosives particle and vapor sampling system will serve as the front-end for a broad range of explosives analyzers, significantly improving their sensitivity and reducing detection times. We anticipate that Enertechnix will be an OEM supplier of the sampling component to manufacturers of security equipment.

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H-SB08.1-005

Company

Williams-Pyro, Inc
200 Greenleaf Street
Fort Worth, TX 76107-1471

Proposal Information 0811044 - Flexible, Auto-configuring, Sensor, Transmission Web (FASTWeb)
Topic Information H-SB08.1-005 - Smart Sensor System
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800075
Abstract

Williams-Pyro Inc. (WPI) is proposing to develop a Miniature Netted Sensor (MNS) system - a modular sensor web system that aggregates sensor data to detect, track, and classify targets. Our solution combines aggregate data analysis, ultra-low power, low-bandwidth wireless networking with energy-efficient routing protocols. The MNS system consists of the following components: A) Modular wireless sensor nodes which consist of three parts: 1. a front-end sensing module with integrated sensors, processing elements and open interfaces to support future sensing enhancements; 2. a communications module to provide secure, power efficient, fault tolerant, communications; and 3. a power conditioning module to support various power sources as well as energy harvesting. B) Localization nodes have the same sensing capabilities as the sensor nodes but also have an integrated GPS unit so that they can function as localization anchors. C) A data aggregation/gateway node to aggregate and bridge data to other networks. Finally, D) Back-end knowledge management system to collect and correlate sensor data from the network to arrive at a system wide decision as to the number and threat level of targets within the system's sphere of detection. The system employs ad-hoc networking to provide a readily scaleable architecture to perform comprehensive surveillance.

Company

intuVision Inc.
10 Tower Office Park
Ste 200
Woburn, MA 01801-2120

Proposal Information 0811119 - Smart Sensing and Tracking with Video and Mote Sensor Collaboration
Topic Information H-SB08.1-005 - Smart Sensor System
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800088
Abstract

Automatic extraction of actionable intelligence from collaborative sensors in a framework that supports seamless exchange of extracted information across sensor layers while leveraging the human in the loop is the focus our proposal. Depending upon the specific end-user, data extracted from the battlefield areas represent two major categories: information requiring and subject to further analyses, and information that is highly time-dependent. Our proposed effort tries to address both information paths to provide easily recognized information at the hands of front-line personnel thereby promoting accuracy in pursuit of mission objectives.

Company

Trident Systems Incorporated
10201 Fairfax Boulevard, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22030-2222

Proposal Information 0811231 - Semantic Mesh of Intelligent Sensors
Topic Information H-SB08.1-005 - Smart Sensor System
Award/Contract Number HSHQDC0800069
Abstract

Trident is proposing the development of a Semantic Mesh of Intelligent Sensors (SMIS), an intelligent wireless sensor network for use in improving the performance of surveillance and security in crowded environments-such as airports, shopping districts, and sporting events. This network will be based around Trident's existing suite of wireless sensor nodes, which offer dynamic meshing capabilities along with very flexible sensor interfacing options and long battery runtimes. Trident proposes to enhance the capabilities of this sensor network by integrating sophisticated multi-modal signal & image processing capabilities for feature extraction, while maintaining low-power operation. The metadata produced by feature extraction processing will then be input to a semantic processing layer, which will utilize standard OWL-based ontological methods to infer threat activities. A wiki-based data store/interface will be used to provide a flexible methodology for interface to all sensor data, metadata, and semantic results, and will allow straightforward interfacing to other users and systems. The Phase I effort will consist of a detailed requirements analysis, followed by the development of an overall architecture, top-level development of component technology solutions, and proof-of-concept testing and demonstration of key capabilities.

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