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Awards

Topic Information Award/Contract Number Proposal Information Company Performance
Period
Award/Contract
Value
Abstract

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC040051 04110022
(FY04.1 Phase I)
System Assessment to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICS)

Technispan LLC
1133C Greenwood Road
Pikesville, MD 21208-3625

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$77,934.00

A threat to Homeland Security is the distribution or release of toxic materials (e.g., toxic industrial chemicals) as a means to disrupt society and affect the general health of the population. If additionally these toxic materials have a low vapor pressure, they are hard to detect with traditional chemical point detectors. To thwart this threat, the chemicals are being classified into threat categories, scientific data collected on chemical signatures, technologies suitable as detector technologies identified, and recommendations made for future research and development.

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC040062 04110096
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Portable detector for low vapor pressure toxic chemicals

Synkera Technologies Inc.
2605 Trade Centre Ave, Suite C
Longmont, CO 80503-4605

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

Synkera Technologies proposes to develop an innovative new field detector for low vapor pressure toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). This detector will be based upon the integration of a unique low power pre-concentrator with an array of solid state electrochemical sensors. The solid state electrochemical sensors will be based upon the use of solid polymer electrolytes with microband electrodes. The sensor arrays will be built by a novel scalable process that results in very small, low cost and high performance sensors. These arrays of sensors will be able to detect and classify a wide range of TICs. The ultimate detector design will be focused on the development of a small, lightweight rugged and inexpensive instrument that could be used to identify low vapor pressure TICs in many diverse locations.

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC040061 04110136
(FY04.1 Phase I)
MEMS Chemicapacitive Sensor System for the Detection of Low Vapor Pressure TICS

Seacoast Science, Inc.
2151 Las Palmas Drive
Suite C
Calrsbad, CA 92011-1575

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,998.00

Seacoast Science proposes to fabricate a detector system for the detection and identification of Low Vapor Pressure (LVP) Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICS). The proposed system will include a Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) chemical sensor array, sampling pump and a MEMS stacked hotplate preconcentrator optimized for the selective and sensitive detection of a variety of TICS that pose a threat to homeland security when in the hand of terrorists. Because of the long list and diverse nature of these compounds we propose a flexible system that allows for multiple modes of operation. The system will be designed for wall mounted or handheld operation and samples can be introduced by sampling ambient air or by direct input from a swipe. Ultimately this program will yield a small, rugged, lightweight, low-power system designed for continuous operation when wall mounted or handheld battery operation. Our MEMS chemicapacitor technology utilizes an array of surface micromachined capacitors optimized for LVP TICS such as pesticides, explosives and mercury. Our MEMS preconcentrator provides high throughput and high collection efficiency while using minimum power. In Phase I we will test our sensors and preconcentrator by exposing them to LVP TICS at appropriate concentrations under a range of environmental conditions.

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC040041 04110238
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Autonomous Detection of LVP Airborne Organics

Cape Cod Research, Inc.
19 Research Road
East Falmouth, MA 02536-4440

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,875.00

A novel conceptual detector for continuous, fully autonomous detection of a broad range of low vapor pressure (LVP) airborne organics is proposed. Formal design of the concept will be performed and a preliminary design review and report generated. Underpinning demonstrations of detection range, selectivity, time and cost of ownership will be estimated by laboratory demonstrations or references to comparable systems. As part of the final report, plans for Phase II will be proposed.

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC040052 04110982
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Continuous Immunoassay for the Accurate Detection of Low Vapor Pressure TICs

Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,999.00

There is a clear and growing need to detect and monitor for highly dangerous releases of toxic industrial compounds (TICs) for the protection of the general public. Current detection and monitoring devices are not adequate to protect against unwanted releases of low vapor TICs because of the high detection sensitivity required. Intelligent Optical Systems (IOS) proposes to provide an improved new generation of point detectors to warn of the presence of low vapor pressure TICs. These point detectors will be based on an emerging IOS technology that uses continuous membrane displacement immunoassay and that has been shown to provide highly sensitive detection of organic pollutants in water. High sensitivity is achieved by using innovative methods to concentrate the target analyte and by employing highly luminescent Quantum Dot labels for detection. This technology will be extended to the detection of vapor phase low volatility TICs through the addition of an efficient air sampling system coupled with an innovative flow assay system. The advantages of this methodology will be demonstrated via the design and evaluation of a laboratory prototype point detection instrument. In Phase II, the methodology will be expanded to enable simultaneous assay of multiple chemical agents.

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC040030 04111161
(FY04.1 Phase I)
QCM Sensors for Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals

Palo Alto Sensor Technology Innovation
879 Newell Place
Palo Alto, CA 94303-

04/01/2004
to
08/26/2004
$61,966.64

The development of highly sensitive, fast Fourier transform (FFT) detected, frequency encoded quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) arrays is proposed for the detection of low vapor pressure (LVP) chemical components, including toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). The development of highly sensitive resonant mass detectors will be an important step in enabling the design of inexpensive

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC040057 04111174
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Novel TOF-MS for Detection of Low Vapor Pressure Chemical and Biological Species

Nanomat, Inc.
1061 Main Street, Building #1 - Drawer #18
North Huntingdon, PA 15642-7425

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

Aerosols contribute to a variety of environmental, biological, and industrial processes including air pollution. Nanomat, Inc proposes to build a novel Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) for monitoring of mass of the submicron chemical and organic species (TIC) with low vapor pressure. The device will have high sensitivity to determine mass of the particles extremely fast in real time. The proposed device will consist of the supersonic aerosol flow generator with an aerodynamic lens and high-duty-cycle Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS) with the spiral quadrupole ion optics. The spiral quadrupole ion optics not only spiralize ion trajectories to make the TOF-MS shorter and lighter but simultaneously due to offset inlet realizes two channels for the ion packets and 98% duty cycle where no ions will be discarded. The deflector-modulator controlled by pseudo-random code generator with the jitter width-pulse modulation is bunching the continuous ion beam by switching ions and directs ion packets in two offset channels and ions of each channel impinge on own ion detectors. The overlapping signal spectra are deconvoluted separately in each channel. The expected mass resolution is better than 1,000 and sensitivity is less than 1ppb.

H-SB04.1-001
New System/Technologies to Detect Low Vapor Pressure Chemicals (e.g., TICs)

NBCHC040049 04111287
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Rapid Low Vapor Pressure Chemical Detection Using a Hand-held Artificial Nose

CogniScent, Inc.
410 Concord Rd.
Weston, MA 02493-1313

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

The Phase I research proposed here focuses on three areas of innovation necessary for low vapor pressure chemical detection using our hand-held artificial nose device: 1) We will optimized sensor construction methods to improve the sensitivity and discrimination ability of individual chemical detectors in the device. 2) We will design and test new vapor sampling methods. Vapor sampling is an area of aerodynamic research for which there are few data available. 3) We will improved the optical components of the device by designing and testing LED driver circuitry and passive optical components, with the goal of improving sensor signal-to-noise. These studies are therefore instrumental for demonstrating the feasibility of using the device for detecting and identifying low vapor pressure chemicals and will support the preliminary design review due at the end of the Phase I period.

H-SB04.1-002
Chem-Bio Sensors Employing Novel Receptor Scaffolds

NBCHC040073 04110102
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Nucleoprozyme Receptors for Biological Detection

Echo Technical
Po Box 1238
Cedar Park, TX 78630-1238

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,501.00

Echo Technical, with Dr. Ellington at the University of Texas at Austin, has performed initial testing of a demonstration biosensor capable of using aptamer-based receptors (Biological Reconfigurable Interface Electronics For Classification and Analysis of Selected Elements, or BRIEFCASE). After initial testing, we found that aptamer-based biological sensors as currently developed are not sufficiently sensitive to provide detection of pathogens before wide-spread exposure and infection have already occurred, and a more aggressive solution would be required to meet the needs of Homeland Security. Dr. Ellington has devised a preliminary design for a new type of biosensor receptor (a so-called 'nucleoprozyme', or NPZ) with optimal signaling characteristics. We propose to develop this new biosensor molecule that is non-reactive in a benign environment, but which spontaneously amplifies the detection of specific pathogens. This novel biosensor would produce an extremely low background signal, but in the presence of a targeted analyte signal detections rapidly and with high reliability. This new NPZ molecule and a prototype NPZ-based biosensor will be demonstrated to have performance, logistical, and cost advantages over the best available antibody-based commercial sensors, with feasibility demonstrated by the end of Phase I. The goal of Phase I is to determine the feasibility of using NPZ molecules as biosensor receptors. This will be accomplished by demonstrating the detection of nucleoprotein complexes that do not have catalytic activity, with the following five objectives to be met: 1) Modify the BRIEFCASE (developed by Echo Technical) to be compatible with the requirements of NPZ receptors (i.e., design and fabricate the Mini-BRIEFCASE). 2) Select nucleic acids that complement a beta-galactosidase deletion variant. 3) Demonstrate that nucleic acids that complement a beta-galactosidase deletion variant can be used to sensitively detect sequence information. 4) Show that beta-galactosidase can generate an optical signal that can be sensitively detected in the Mini-BRIEFCASE. 5) Show that surrogate nucleic acid biosensors can be immobilized and used for sensitive target detection in the Mini-BRIEFCASE. By the completion of Phase III of this SBIR, the technology developed here promises a commercially viable long shelf-life multiplexed configurable NPZ-based biosensor prototype. This biosensor will meet several interesting market needs, including one example recently identified by HSARPA in Research Announcement 03-01, for rapid response biological identification systems. This biosensor would also be applicable to first-responder equipment for sale to state and local governments, DoD force protection applications, and medical diagnostic applications in the private sector.

H-SB04.1-002
Chem-Bio Sensors Employing Novel Receptor Scaffolds

NBCHC040074 04110123
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Chem-Bio Sensors Employing Novel Receptor Scaffolds

BioTraces, Inc
13455 Sunrise Valley Dr., Suite 200
Herndon, VA 20171-3296

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,723.00

The goal of this SBIR Phase I project is to develop supersensitive MPD enabled, binding assays for detection of BW agent using aptamers as the capture molecules instead of antibodies. Multi Photon Detection (MPD) is the most sensitive methods for protein detection and achieved a few zeptomole sensitivity. MPD enabled immunoassays will be developed first and from these Super-ELISA methods will be developed that will use not radioactive materials. Assays will be developed for one example of each type of BW agent: a protein toxin, botulism toxin, a bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, and a virus, Vaccinia as a surogate for smallpox. Sensitivities of about one virion per liter of air are expected, which is about 100-fold more sensitive than prior art P-chip-based detectors for multiple viral targets.<br><br>The broader impact of these activities lies in the application of proteomics methods to the detection of pathogens that have the potential to be used as biological weapons (BW) by armies or terrorists. The methods developed may deliver better tests for the rapid and sensitive detection of these pathogens. Such improved tests would improve the security of US troops in the field as well as the civilian population at home.<br>

H-SB04.1-002
Chem-Bio Sensors Employing Novel Receptor Scaffolds

NBCHC040075 04110190
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Photoaptamers as Capture Reagents for Biological Agents

SomaLogic, Inc.
1745 38th Street
Boulder, CO 80301-

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$98,280.00

Antibodies are the prototypical capture reagent for biological agents (proteins and pathogens). However, despite their advantages, antibodies also have significant disadvantages with respect to shelf life, production reproducibility and, less importantly, cost. Alternative receptor scaffolds, such as nucleic acid-based photoaptamers, offer similar performance characteristics to antibodies but without the attendant drawbacks that are common to protein-based capture reagents. Furthermore, photoaptamers can detect their targets at concentrations in the low femtomolar range. SomaLogic, Inc. can design and build a simple, user-friendly, inexpensive laboratory-based analytical system that has, as its cornerstone, a photoaptamer microarray that can capture with high specificity and sensitivity the targets of interest. It will incorporate elution buffers that can be used to elute the proteins and / or pathogens of interest off of standard air filters, water filters, swabs, swipes or other sample collection devices and the necessary laboratory equipment, reagents and SOPs required for sample analysis. It will utilize standard analytical laboratory fluid handling systems for chip processing, and a standard microarray fluorescent chip reader for protein and /or pathogen detection. Finally, the entire analytical system could be assembled using existing technology within a 2-3 year time horizon.<br><br>The specific objectives of this Phase I project are:<br><br>Technical Objective #1: Demonstrate functional utility of photoaptamer arrays: dynamic range and limits of detection.<br><br>Technical Objective #2: Demonstrate superiority of photoaptamers to antibodies with respect to thermal and chemical stability.<br><br>Technical Objective #3: Demonstrate the ability to optimize specificity and affinity of our photoaptamer arrays for at least one protein target relative to other closely related proteins.<br>

H-SB04.1-002
Chem-Bio Sensors Employing Novel Receptor Scaffolds

NBCHC040077 04110240
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Development of a Multi-analyte Biosensor Platform Based on Computationally-Designed Proteins

Nomadics, Inc.
1024 S. Innovation Way
Stillwater, OK 74074-1508

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,995.00

Antibody-based receptor scaffolds used in chemical and biological sensors suffer from certain inherent shortfalls. We propose an approach based on the use of computationally designed proteins as receptor scaffolds. Such receptor scaffolds overcome many of the problems encountered with antibodies. This approach offers the significant advantage of being a general method that provides a path to rapid development of specific receptors. We propose to transition fluorescent reagentless biosensor technologies from the academic laboratory in which they were originally developed into fieldable products. Specifically, we intend to develop biosensors that incorporate engineered periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) that recognize and report organophosphate mimics and hydrolysis products of well-known nerve agents such as Soman (organophosphate<br>surrogate is pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid, or PMPA) and Sarin (organophosphate<br>surrogate isopropyl methyl phosphonic acid, or IMPA). This work will initially proceed as a collaboration between Nomadics and the laboratory of Dr. H.W. Hellinga at Duke University Medical Center. Dr. Hellinga has developed PMPA-binding PBPs and is finishing development of IMPA-binding PBPs. <br>

H-SB04.1-002
Chem-Bio Sensors Employing Novel Receptor Scaffolds

NBCHC040079 04110255
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Phage Derived Receptor Scaffold

Weld Star Technology, Inc.
610 Jennifer Dr.
Auburn, AL 36830-7110

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,999.50

The risk of biological terrorism is significant because of the high potency, widespread availability, and ease of dissemination of some biological threat agents. The earliest recognition of a bioterrorist attack may be indicated only by the clinical manifestation of the intended disease which, in some cases, can take days to weeks to present itself. Furthermore, laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis requires additional time. Despite the rapid advances in the development of identification methods such as fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), sensors that continuously monitor for the first signs of exposure to biological threat agents are needed. <br><br>Any monitoring device for the detection of biological threat agents requires a scaffolding probe as part of the sensing platform that is capable of binding the target agent. Many of the currently proposed monitoring devices utilize antibodies as the molecular recognition probe. A good antibody may be very selective in targeting a particular antigen; however, an antibody is a relatively fragile species whose binding characteristics rapidly degrade when exposed to unfavorable environments. Antibodies require affinity purification and stabilization for use as a scaffolding probe which significantly increases their cost. A stable, reproducible and inexpensive alternative to antibodies for use as a molecular recognition probe is needed. <br><br>Phage possess many of the desirable features of antibodies and have been shown to serve as a substitute for antibodies by binding soluble and cell-displayed antigens and receptors. Phage may exhibit high affinity, increased specificity and selectivity, long term stability as well as enhanced robustness compared with antibodies. In this Phase I effort, a phage derived probe for spores of B. anthracis will be investigated and compared with commercially available antibodies with respect to its ability to serve as a receptor scaffold on a biosensor platform. Techniques for the immobilization of the phage derived probe onto a unique sensing platform will also be examined in a parallel effort.<br>

H-SB04.1-002
Chem-Bio Sensors Employing Novel Receptor Scaffolds

NBCHC040080 04110257
(FY04.1 Phase I)
FRET Aptamer-Based Biosensor Array for Homeland Defense

Operational Technologies Corporation
4100 N.W. Loop 410 Suite 230
San Antonio, TX 78229-4253

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,691.76

Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-DNA aptamers are oligonucleotides that have been modified with fluorophores and quenchers in their structures so that upon binding to their target analytes, the fluorophore and quencher become separated and capable of emitting light to indicate that binding has occurred. In Phase I, Operational Technologies Corporation (OpTech) will compare a "rational design" method for the engineering of FRET aptamers in which known aptamer sequences will be selectively modified with fluorophores and quenchers with the intent of achieving optimal FRET. Unfortunately, selective modification may also effect binding affinity or specificity of the aptamers. Therefore, OpTech will compare the "rational design" method with its own proprietary "random selection" method of generating FRET aptamers. Under the random selection method, the starting library of random DNA sequences will be doped with fluorophore- and quencher-labeled nucleotides that become incorporated into the final aptamer structures. One major advantage of this approach is that potential effects of the fluorophores and quenchers on aptamer binding affinity and specificity are nullified (i.e., not chosen) in the selection process. By the end of Phase I, OpTech will choose one method (rational or random selection) to proceed with into Phase II. In Phase II, OpTech will use the chosen method to generate FRET aptamers to several pesticides (chemical warfare agent simulants) and will clone and sequence the anti-pesticide aptamers. OpTech will also construct and optimize an aptamer array chip and build a compact FRET array scanner prototype for field use by first responders. The compact array scanner will be constructed in conjunction with Taboada Research Instruments, Inc. (San Antonio, TX). FRET aptamers can release their bound analytes when heated and flushed and resume their original conformations at lower temperatures. Therefore, the multianalyte array should be reusable for many cycles of detection. In Phase III, OpTech will pursue other commercial applications of the technology such as medical and veterinary diagnostics, environmental monitoring, food safety, and other applications.

H-SB04.1-002
Chem-Bio Sensors Employing Novel Receptor Scaffolds

NBCHC040082 04110381
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Rapid Multianalyte Yocomolar Biosensor Platform

BioElectroSpec
5490 Derry Street
Harrisburg, PA 17111-3559

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,985.00

The goal of this project is to develop a platform biosensor technology for rapid, multianalyte detection of proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, and other molecules of interest with sensitivity at the level of single molecule detection. We propose to build a hand-held, robust apparatus, similar to a palm computer, equipped with a sensor cartridge designed for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. Inexpensive, disposable sensor cartridge will have an array of receptor molecules and set of reagents for a one-step detection process. In contrast to currently available technologies that employ antibodies and require multiple stages of reagent injection and washing, the envisioned biosensor system is based on a one-stage process that allows detection of molecular signatures in a matter of seconds or a few minutes. For many existing technologies, rate of response is slow, which makes them useless for such biodefense applications and clinical analyses that need results in several minutes or less. <br><br>This SBIR project builds upon the experience of the investigators at BioElectroSpec in developing total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) biosensor systems. We have built and currently are testing a prototype of a bench-top, analytical grade, versatile TIRF biosensor instrument, which has sensitivity at the level of single molecule detection. In the proposed project we will use our previous experience to develop a miniaturized, hand-held multianalyte biosensor that will be capable of detecting single target molecules in a matter of several seconds or a few minutes. The proposed technology has the potential to revolutionize many areas that are related to life sciences, including the biodefense potential of the Department of Homeland Security.<br><br>In Phase I we plan to prove the concept at the single-pixel level and demonstrate feasibility of the envisioned multianalyte sensor. In Phase II, we plan to partner with academic and industrial research groups to build a prototype of the hand-held biosensor for rapid, simultaneous detection of multiple bioanalytes in liquid and gaseous samples. The envisioned sensor will be capable to determine molecular signatures in such biological fluids as saliva, blood and other body fluids and can find a broad application for biodefense and biomedical analyses.<br>

H-SB04.1-002
Chem-Bio Sensors Employing Novel Receptor Scaffolds

NBCHC040084 04110568
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Detecting Ricin with Engineered Sensor Switches

Orthosystems, Inc.
2-212 Center for Science ad Technology
Syracuse, NY 13244-4100

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,981.00

OrthoSystems, Inc. creates switchable molecular sensors for bioterror agents and other targets. In this project our OrthoSwitchTM technology platform will be used to develop a rapid diagnostic device for detecting ricin in solution. OrthoSwitchesTM are custom designed molecular sensors that function in the absence of a separation step or attachment to a solid-support. In contrast to antibody-based alternatives, highly selective sensors based on nucleic acids can be engineered to switch between two forms. In Phase I, a bi-stable Ricin OrthoSwitchTM will be tested and improved. This switch will be quenched (dark) in the absence of the ricin, and fluorescent (bright) in its presence; it will be set to trigger from dark to light at a low threshold concentration of ricin. Only the bright form of the switch will present a sequence that is known to have very high affinity for ricin. The described ricin switch will be tested for high sensitivity, selectivity and response time using conventional fluorophore/quencher (FRET) signaling. This ricin switch will then be tested in a prototype detection device developed with technology partners. Commercial applications of our technology lie in rapid detection of biowarfare agents, environmental contaminants, and discovering and evaluating potential antidotes to toxic agents.

H-SB04.1-002
Chem-Bio Sensors Employing Novel Receptor Scaffolds

NBCHC040103 04110806
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Novel Aptamer:Peptide Based ECL Assays for Homeland Security

Accacia International LLC
1925 Rutland Dr.
Suite E
Austin, TX 78758-5480

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

Accacia International LLC is a nascent biotech company, certified as a WBE/MBE, based in the heart of Texas and in the capital city of Austin. Accacia's scientists have provided consulting services and performed research work on SBIR projects in collaboration with other awardees, also developed products for commercial use. Accacia has also teamed up with the Ellington Labs at the University of Texas at Austin, to perform research work in the field of aptamer development. Accacia has to its credit several achievements. Although unrelated to this proposal since its inception in 2000, Accacia Inc. has developed and prototyped a reflectance IC Strip reader for the medical diagnostic industry. Patents are pending for the same. Additional patents are in process for two other technologies. Accacia undertakes OEM manufacturing of immunochromatographic strips for various diagnostic serum assays. Antibodies are often modified and conjugated for use in detection of biowarfare agents, foodborne pathogens, and for use in clinical diagnostics. Nucleic acids (aptamers) specifically selected to bind to targets of interest, have been demonstrated as potential replacement for antibodies due to their high specificity, accelerated development time, and low cost of production. Developments of aptamers to certain targets like Bacillus Anthracis (BA) whole spores also pose their own set of challenges. The chemistries available to aptamers are relatively limited and to some extent impede their ability to recognize an even wider variety of targets. For example, aptamers are by and large polyanions, and thus may have difficulty recognizing targets that are negatively charged. In order to expand the range of nucleic acid chemistry while still maintaining the inherent advantages of nucleic acid biosensors relative to antibodies, Accacia proposes to develop both covalent and non-covalent nucleic acid:peptide conjugates and to utilize these conjugates in novel signal transduction schemes. All of the molecular regents developed during Phase I will be adapted during Phase II for use with the IGEN ORIGEN analyzer. This analytical platform has been chosen for three reasons. First, electrochemical luminescence (ECL) provides extremely sensitive levels of detection when compared with traditional fluorescence detection systems. Second, ORIGEN technology is either currently being used, or soon to be employed by a number of government programs including the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMARID), the Department of Defense's Automated Biological Agent Testing System program (ABATS), the Department of Defense for the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS) and the Department of Defense U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command. Third, there are numerous antibody assays on the ORIGEN which can be directly compared with the novel reagents we are generating, as per the requirements set out for the SBIR.

H-SB04.1-002
Chem-Bio Sensors Employing Novel Receptor Scaffolds

NBCHC040072 04111040
(FY04.1 Phase I)
CMOS FET and AlGaN MODFET Receptor Scaffold for Molecular Recognition and Direct Detection

Peterson Ridge LLC (dba Fluence)
PO Box 1257
Sisters, OR 97759-1257

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,890.00

This project is designed to test a novel receptor scaffold/sensor combination for the selective and direct measurement of antigens and to compare direct electric detection of antigens against the corresponding antibody based ELISA method. The scaffold concept combines a robust nucleic acid receptor (aptamer) coupled to a low cost CMOS FET and AlGaN MODFET transducer. Aptamers are short nucleic acid polymer sequences (oligonucleotides) of between 20 and 80 nucleic acid residues. Aptamers can be isolated and tested for binding affinity with a variety of target molecules (e.g. pathogenic bacteria). Unlike antibodies, those aptamers with demonstrated affinity can then synthesized using high volume commercial methods unlike antibodies. They are also typically stable to heat and surface denaturation unlike antibodies, and can be synthesized with modified nucleotides so as to avoid degradation in most harsh biological or non-biological environments. Multiple candidate aptamers specific for a biological agent provides potential for validation and greater confidence in the detection process, and the CMOS FET transducer matches well the potential of aptamers to be able to quickly adapt to new biological and chemical threats. The FET for sensing applications was first reported thirty years ago. FETs can be manufactured in large quantities with consistent electrical properties using an industry standard process. In principal, the FET detects the charge redistribution as a result of aptamer binding the target molecule. The aptamers are linked closely to the sensor by a robust commercial process. Silane chemistry is used to modify the oxide surfaces of the FET channel region and the subsequent covalent bond to the protein avidin to produce a common surface for attaching a variety of different aptamers. Aptamer candidates are modified by the addition of biotin and attached to the avidin-modified surface. The resulting receptor modified surface has a potentially longer shelf life and active life in the field than do sensors where the receptor is physically adsorbed on a surface or embedded in a polymer matrix. It is unlikely that direct detection using aptamers will compete with the sensitivity of laboratory methods (ELISAs) using antibodies, but the aptamer sensor combination should be a more robust detection method requiring less maintenance than the antibody version of the same sensor and more flexible in adapting new threats.

H-SB04.1-003
Advanced Low Cost Aerosol Collectors for Surveillance Sensors and Personal Monitoring

NBCHC040110 04110360
(FY04.1 Phase I)
A Novel, Low Power, High Throughput, High Efficiency, Scalable Electrostatic Bioaerosol Sampler

CFD Research Corporation
215 Wynn Dr.
5th Floor
Huntsville, AL 35805-1926

04/05/2004
to
10/19/2004
$99,948.00

Current bioaerosol monitoring strategies rely on inertia-based sampling and suffer from high power consumption and low efficiency limitations. In contrast, our overall objective is to design and demonstrate a novel electrostatic sampler that provides dramatic improvements including low power requirement (<100W), high throughput (500-1000L/min), high collection efficiency (>90% for 1-10mm), high viability (>80%), scalability for varying threat scenarios, low noise, and concentration of particles in liquid buffer. In an additional unique feature, our device will be able to discriminate desired size range, e.g., respirable fraction, from atmospheric background. The proposed technology will leverage on ongoing efforts at CFDRC to develop a personal-sized biosensor-sampler. Our main challenge is to increase throughput to 1000L/min while maintaining high efficiencies and minimizing losses. We will extend our existing technology by using a judicious combination of multiphysics analysis and experimentation. In Phase I, we will design, fabricate and test an electrostatic collector with innovative electrode design, along with charge modulation to maximize efficiency. Phase II will involve scale-up, system integration, and testing with class-based simulants and agents.

H-SB04.1-003
Advanced Low Cost Aerosol Collectors for Surveillance Sensors and Personal Monitoring

NBCHC040100 04110377
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Low Cost Electrostatic Cyclone for Aerosol Collection and Concentration

InnovaTek, Inc.
350 Hills Street, Suite 104
Richland, WA 99352-

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

InnovaTek proposes to develop an advanced, low cost aerosol collector/concentrator that utilizes electrostatic precipitation and cyclonic impingement with a virtual impactor pre-concentrator that will have >90% collection efficiency while operating at 1000 LPM using less than 50 watts of power. Technology will be designed on the basis of first principles and computational fluid dynamics modeling. Components will be fabricated using 3-dimensional CAD drawings based on models and calculations. During Phase I several mini-collector prototypes will be designed and fabricated to test our theories and establish feasibility of the scaled-up system. Variables to be examined include electric field intensity, central electrode diameter, deposition cylinder diameter and length, cyclone inlet size, and liquid impingement methodology. System efficiency will be determined using aerosolized particles and microorganisms. Power requirements and ease of manufacturing will also be considered. Final component geometries and operating parameters will be selected on the basis of performance and estimated manufacturing costs. At the end of Phase I a scaled-up design, to be fabricated and tested during Phase II will be delivered.

H-SB04.1-003
Advanced Low Cost Aerosol Collectors for Surveillance Sensors and Personal Monitoring

NBCHC040076 04110379
(FY04.1 Phase I)
An Enhanced: Lower Power, Higher Efficiency, Concentrator Design

Digital Flow Technologies, Inc.
2353 Sapphire Lane
East Lansing, MI 48823-

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$89,950.00

Two primary efforts define the DFTI (Digital Flow Technologies, Inc.) response to the HSARPA requirements to develop a lower cost, more efficient, high (1000 liters/min) volume flow rate concentrator that requires lower power than the extant concentrator designs. The first of these is to create an operational "pre-concentrator" that will deliver a jet flow of air-plus-particles with the particulates (aerosols) concentrated at the jet centerline. This flow, delivered to a conventional concentrator tube provides a higher efficiency of operation given this centerline concentration. This prototype will be developed and proof tested with aerosol samples. The second effort will extend the initial design elements of the DFTI Concentrator System (described herein) that provides a dramatic reduction in the required power at a lower system cost. These specific extensions of the initial design elements (as described in this proposal) will be preparatory to the construction of a system in Phase II.

H-SB04.1-003
Advanced Low Cost Aerosol Collectors for Surveillance Sensors and Personal Monitoring

NBCHC040083 04110592
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Aerosol Concentrator Employing Micro-Machined Aerodynamic Lenses

Enertechnix, Inc.
P.O. Box 469
Maple Valley, WA 98038-0469

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,934.00

The proposed project will develop a novel aerosol concentrator based on aerodynamic lens technology capable of achieving very high concentration factors in a compact device. This device will be fabricated in silicon using micro-fabrication methods resulting in low cost, compact size, high reliability, high throughput, and extremely high precision and repeatability. In this project we will develop Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models of the fluid flow and particle trajectories inside aerodynamic lenses. We will fabricate lenses on silicon wafers using standard wafer micro-fabrication methods, and we will test the performance of those lenses using carefully prepared aerosols. Finally, we will make detailed comparisons between the predictions of our CFD models and the experimental results. At the end of phase I, we will have developed a reliable CFD modeling capability that can be used in phase II to design more complex structures and we will have demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating these lenses in silicon using standard micro-machining techniques. We will also have developed a battery of diagnostic methods to assess the performance of these devices which will be used in phase II to assess the performance of 2-dimensional arrays of aerodynamic lens aerosol concentrators.

H-SB04.1-003
Advanced Low Cost Aerosol Collectors for Surveillance Sensors and Personal Monitoring

NBCHC040090 04110680
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Advanced Bioaerosol Samplers for Surveillance and Personal Monitoring

MesoSystems Technology Inc.
415 N. Quay, Bldg A.
Suite 3
Kennewick, WA 99336-7783

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,995.00

Many integrated biodetection systems require an aqueous sample, with the notable exception being those based on mass spectrometry which frequently uses a dry sample (MALDI or pyrolysis). The two proposed air sampling technologies to be developed are amenable to dry or nearly dry sample collection, but yet both can deliver a final sample in an aqueous format autonomously. Furthermore, both offer significant operating and cost advantages relative to more conventional wet-walled cyclones in use today for homeland security and military applications. Another common sampling technique in use today is dry filtering, but this approach is not amenable to fully-autonomous operation. The technologies to be developed by the proposed effort will result in samplers that can be integrated with a broad range of advanced biodetection technologies including mass spectrometry, microchip arrays, PCR and immunoassays.

H-SB04.1-003
Advanced Low Cost Aerosol Collectors for Surveillance Sensors and Personal Monitoring

NBCHC040085 04111119
(FY04.1 Phase I)
High Efficiency, Dual-Mode Air Sampler

Research International, Inc
17161 Beaton Road SE
Monroe, WA 98272-1034

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,994.00

A compact, low power and low cost air sampler is proposed that utilizes a novel topology and two-stage design to concentrate respirable particulates. The proposed hardware and collection strategy minimizes problems associated with freezing conditions and provides a high air-to-liquid concentration ratio.

H-SB04.1-004
Computer Modelling Tool for Vulnerability Assessment of U.S. Infrastructure

NBCHC040113 04110418
(FY04.1 Phase I)
3D Visualization of Prediction Surfaces

Reallaer, LLC
P.O. Box 549
Port Republic, MD 20676-0549

04/12/2004
to
10/25/2004
$99,983.00

Spatial Feature Temporal Modeling is able to provide analysts with a predictive surface for specific terrorist groups and tactics in the areas Reallaer has modeled. Reallaer proposes to research using three dimensional (3D) visualizations of the terrorist group`s targeted areas. We propose to research methods to present 3D models and information overlaid on real world scenes. These visualizations will improve the utility of targeting predictive surfaces to analysts in protecting United States infrastructure.

H-SB04.1-004
Computer Modelling Tool for Vulnerability Assessment of U.S. Infrastructure

NBCHC040111 04111046
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Strategic Effects-based Objective Approach to Determine the Likelihood of Possible Terrorist Attacks

21st Century Technologies. Inc.
11675 Jollyville Road, Suite 300
Austin, TX 78759-4105

04/05/2004
to
10/19/2004
$99,983.00

The goal of this research is to extend TMODS (Terrorist Modus Operandi Detection System), that has been funded by DARPA's EELD (Evidence Extraction and Link Discovery) and Genoa 2, and TIA programs. TMODS uses terrorist network analysis (TNA) to build the representation for abnormal social networks indicative of terrorist or illicit network-centric cells and searches for these patterns in huge pools of transactional information to detect terrorist activities. We have integrated TMODS with CAT (Casual Analysis Tool) to enable analyzing the existence and detection of these cells to compute the probability of actual terrorist events and derive a probabilistic plan assessment of the successful execution of a terrorist event. Under this proposed Homeland Security SBIR effort, we will leverage this integration and develop new functionality for obtaining and reasoning about knowledge about terrorist groups, terrorist attack methods, and infrastructure targets to produce a strategic vulnerability assessment tool. Our proposed TMODS extensions will add the specific information about specific infrastructure targets, terrorist groups, and terrorist attack methods through ontology, process, and causal models to reason about the likelihood of attack and what method against critical infrastructure assets.

H-SB04.1-004
Computer Modelling Tool for Vulnerability Assessment of U.S. Infrastructure

NBCHC040112 04111120
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Vulnerability Assessment Tool For Homeland Security

SPATIAL DATA ANALYTICS CORPORATION
1344 Carpers Farm Way
Vienna, VA 22182-1347

05/02/2004
to
11/16/2004
$98,958.98

Spatial Data Analytic Corporation`s (SPADAC) Vulnerability Assessment Tool For Homeland Security will be built on top of a Geospatial Information System (GIS) to provide a digital map that indicates areas of high concern. Spatial Feature Temporal Analysis will be used to allow for the capture and reuse of targeting signatures for any given group. The system will be built so that a signature can be generated for any set of spatial data, thereby offering commercial oppurtunities in other sectors. In addition to preparing a system conceptual design, SPADAC will derive initial signatures for two relevant terrorist groups. It will then be shown how these signatures can be applied to new areas of interest where historical events have not yet occurred.

H-SB04.1-004
Computer Modelling Tool for Vulnerability Assessment of U.S. Infrastructure

NBCHC040032 04111313
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Terrorist Modeling Tool (TMT)

American Heuristics Corporation
2 Millennium Centre
Triadelphia, WV 26059-

04/01/2004
to
08/15/2004
$58,586.13

modeling for terrorist networks

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040045 04110101
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Marine Asset Tag Tracking Systems

Tera Research Inc
1344 Bordeuax Drive
Sunnyvale, CA 94089-

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$98,689.00

The key challenges to the envisioned Marine Asset Tag Tracking System are: 1) Establishing a reliable communication link to each container when they are stacked together, and 2) Determining the position of each container within the stack. Reliable communication is difficult because of the line of sight obstruction from an external radio to the tag when the containers are stacked at a terminal or on a ship. A robust communication approach is proposed to provide highly reliable communication links to stacked containers. In addition, a maximum likelihood algorithm is proposed to determine the location of the containers within a stack. Experiments are proposed to validate these two innovative concepts. These approaches will be integrated in the overall Marine Asset Tag Tracking System.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040050 04110125
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System (MATTS)

Information Systems Laboratories
10070 Barnes Canyon Road
San Diego, CA 92121-2722

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,916.00

The objective is to demonstrate by analysis and modeling that a MARINE ASSET TAG TRACKING SYSTEM (MATTS) is feasible and capable of satisfying key detection and security-related requirements in a marine shipping environment. ISL's unique approach couples proven features of conventional Local Transmit/Receive Network (LTRN) architectures with innovative tag technologies to address the most difficult aspects of single-container access and localization in multiple environments. Development tasks include design of an overall architecture, container tag trade studies, and LTRN design. An optimized MATTS architecture will be developed by incorporating innovative tag design, interactive tag technology, and modified tag reader designs into an overall system definition that addresses marine shipping operations and affordability concerns. Innovative tag designs and communications techniques for accessing and localizing deeply stacked containers will be analyzed. A Local Transmit/Receive Network architecture capable of reliably communicating with all stacked containers, adjunct sensors and data centers will be configured a design based on ISL's proven tag Reader product line, incorporating COTS components identified during trade studies. The architecture will be designed to control secure access and communication between tags and remote Data Center(s), enabling on-demand query access and container communications to DHS.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040044 04110192
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Long Range RF system for tracking status and location of shipping containers in port and on ship.

S5 Wireless, Inc.
11778 Lone Peak Parkway, Suite 140
Draper, UT 84020-6807

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,999.00

S5 Wireless has developed a patent pending low cost, low power, long range, deep reach Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum-based wireless tracking and telemetry solution for metropolitan telemetry and tracking markets. This solution is designed to be easy and inexpensive to deploy, low cost and low power, with high triangulation accuracy. S5 Wireless believes that this system offers significant advantages over existing and emerging alternative solutions in achieving the objectives of this solicitation, as well as meeting the needs of the commercial shipping industry.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040058 04110199
(FY04.1 Phase I)
VIPMobile Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

VIPMobile, Inc.
120 Montgomery Street
Suite 2000
San Francisco, CA 94104-4303

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,999.00

VIPMobile has developed an inter-cargo tracking and monitoring system for shipping containers that provides a modular, plug-and-play, scalable architecture for container monitoring either afloat or ashore. The VIPMobile solution incorporates state-of-the-art data transfer technologies and provides a flexible architecture that allows shipping operators and seaports to plug-and-play different modalities but using a common or standard communications protocol.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040054 04110209
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Adaptation of Advanced Technology for Ordnance Surveillance to a Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

Phase IV Engineering, Inc.
2820 Wilderness Place, Suite C
Boulder, CO 80301-

04/01/2004
to
09/15/2004
$99,518.76

In Phase I, Phase IV proposes to develop the overall architecture and design of a prototype RF system for shipping containers that will operate in the marine environment while being loaded stacked aboard ship, on board deck of a ship in a stack, unloaded, and moved and stacked in shipping terminals. Phase IV has developed a state-of-the-art RF system for tracking and monitoring munitions, both at land and at sea, for NAVSEA. The Advanced Technology Ordnance System (ATOS) includes active RF tags, fixed readers, and handheld readers. The tags have advanced power management; 4Mb of memory; IP-67 packaging (capable of immersion in water for 30 minutes); temperature, humidity, and shock sensing; and programmable alerts. The fixed readers have Ethernet interfaces and can be daisy chained to cover a wide perimeter. The handheld readers are derivatives of a COTS Pocket PC data collection device. Phase IV has also developed the Barrier Communication System (BCS) for wireless transmission through metal container walls. Phase IV proposes to adapt and commercialize the ATOS and BCS technology for a production marine asset tag tracking system. Phase IV is prepared to demonstrate the ATOS and BCS system to HSARPA upon request.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040063 04110249
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Marine Asset Tag Using Near Field Electromagnetic Ranging

Q-Track Corporation
3414 Governors Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805-3672

04/01/2004
to
09/15/2004
$97,148.00

We propose a Marine Asset Tag Tracking System (MATTS) using a breakthrough wireless tracking technology called near field electromagnetic ranging (NFER(TM)). The primary objective of Phase I is to validate that NFER(TM) technology is the best RF solution for tracking containers on ships and in ports. Phase I will also (1) develop an overall architecture for the MATTS; (2) design the container tag; (3) design the NFER(TM) access point; (4) prepare a conceptual design of the local Data Center, and (5) define the data link to the Global Data Center. MATTS should be capable of tracking containers in the following marine environments: (a) being loaded aboard ships, (b) stacked in a ship, (c) being unloaded, and (d) being moved and stacked in shipping terminals. Even without a NFER(TM) infrastructure at a port or ship, a DHS official should be able to use a NFER(TM) receiver to locate a specific container in a stack of containers provided the targeted container has a NFER(TM) tag. Q-Track Corporation, the pioneer in NFER(TM) technology, has teamed with On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR). OAR has over two decades of experience in architecture design, networking, sensor integration, and software engineering for federal information systems.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040046 04110368
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Cargo Active Tracking Systems (CATS)

Irvine Sensors Corporation
3001 Redhill Avenue, Building 4-108
Costa Mesa, CA 92626-4532

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,779.00

The objective of the Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency (HSARPA04.1-005) effort is to develop and prototype a "Tag System" for maritime shipping containers. The tracking information and status of a shipping container's tag system is performed on a global level in a variety of locations: 1) Pre-staged stacked on the dock; 2) Stored on-board of a transport ship; 3) Off-loaded from the transport ship onto the U.S.; 4) In-transit from the dock to shipping terminals. Our approach incorporates the stacking of electronic components with radio frequency (RF) devices to be placed on and around current and future maritime cargo containers. Stacking enables an innovative concept called "container laddering" that automatically creates a fully reconfigurable network topology of all container positions. The container topology reconfigures automatically as the container placement changes. This enables full monitoring of all containers regardless of their placement, even if stacked and stored below the hull of the ship. All required ship and container sensor information could be monitored and addressed from a designated command and control data center established by Homeland Security. Our investigation will lead to the development and implementation of a prototype in Phase II.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040060 04110457
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Innovative Tracking System for Monitoring of Stacked Cargo Containers

Scientific Application & Research Associates, Inc.
6300 Gateway Drive
Cypress, CA 90630-4844

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,997.00

Present-day transponders require a clear line-of-sight with the sky, both to track their position with GPS and to relay status information to an uplink. This requirement precludes the ability to track asset tags whose containers are deeply stacked on or below deck. SARA is pleased to offer an innovative solution to overcome the line-of-sight requirement by developing an asset-tag-tracking system based on SARA-proprietary broadcasting methodologies that are resistant to the signal-degrading effects common in RF- and IR-based systems (such as multi-path reflections and attenuation through metal). The proposed system will be able to monitor simultaneously hundreds to thousands of tags in near-real-time, pinpoint any tag's position to within one meter (without a technician needing to walk on-deck and "triangulate" with a hand-held unit), and perform these functions securely and reliably no matter how deeply stacked the container might be. In Phase I of this proposal, SARA will design the architecture of the system and demonstrate the salient features of the broadcast technology. The results of the design and demonstration will clear a low-risk path to a fully-functional system demonstration in Phase II.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040064 04110565
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Cargo Container Tracking and Monitoring System (C2TMS)

International Electronic Machines
60 Fourth Avenue
Albany, NY 12202-1924

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,998.89

International Electronic Machines Corp. (IEM), a leader in sensor and GIS technology, will design and prove the feasibility of a Cargo Container Tracking and Monitoring System (C2TMS) which will: uniquely ID each and every container, track container positions to within one foot or less under all conditions using unique, innovative RF localization and digital processing techniques, categorize and track the manifest of the container, provide I/O to sensors on containers for status data (tampering, leakage, temperature, etc.), and provide secure access to all data for any and all containers from a central location in real-time. The C2TMS will consist of a unique Cargo Container Tag with both passive and active functions, Tracking and Monitoring Units which will localize and monitor all containers and their status, a Local Transciever/Data Network(LTDN) which will maintain a realtime 3-D map of the container locations, and a Main Data Center,updated by the LTDNs on vessels or in storage facilities, which will track and access all info on all containers at all times. IEM will be assisted in this design by personnel from NASA's JPL and by data and resources from MapInfo.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040047 04110591
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Ultra Wideband (UWB) Networked Wireless Tags for Marine Asset Tracking

Gaea Corporation
3631 E. 1st Street
Suite 7
Long Beach, CA 90803-2793

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,402.00

We propose a novel ultra wideband (UWB) wireless tag system capable of tracking shipping containers while being loaded, closely stacked above or below decks, or being moved within shipping terminals. Each container has one or more tags that use UWB wireless technology to form an ad-hoc mesh network with its neighboring containers. In addition, each tag can measure the distance to its neighboring tags. Therefore, the information from a container buried deep in a stack of containers can be relayed by intermediate tags and emerge at the "edges" of the container stack, which have clear visibility to the local transmitter/receiver net. As each tag has the capability of communicating with, and measuring its distance to, the local transceiver net, multiple "edge" tags provide redundancy in getting the information into and out of a stack of containers reliably. The identity and distance information from the container network is relayed by the local transceiver net, to a central network controller which solves the distance/ID constraint information to provide a unique x,y,z coordinate for each container. The central controller then allows for retransmission of this data via satellite to a remote Data Center.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040048 04110604
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Embedded Inertial State Tags for Marine Asset Tracking

iControl Incorporated
3235 Kifer Road
Suite 260
Santa Clara, CA 95051-0815

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$96,945.00

To provide a complete system for tracking and monitoring marine assets, the proposed effort will design an RF tag that utilizes low-cost, embedded microprocessors and accelerometers for calculating the inertial states of the container while onboard the ship. The initial states are determined at the time of loading by differential GPS measurements taken by the on-ship gateway and the in-terminal gateway. RF links from the tag to the gateway will transmit updated onboard location and sensor information for upload to control centers located onboard, in the terminals, and at remote sites. The upload frequency and real-time event threshholds are remotely programmable. The data received by the control center will be displayed in both graphical and textual views for rapid report generation and analysis.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040059 04110654
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Microwave Data Telemetry for Marine Container Security

IR Telemetrics, Inc.
P.O. Box 70
Houghton, MI 49931-1234

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,836.00

IR Telemetrics builds microwave telemetry systems for transmitting sensor data through narrow metallic passages within automobile engines. IRT devices can interface with sensors and transmit their data to a local receiver network through complex passages as small as four centimeters. Research will adapt IRT core technology to enable continuous communication with marine containers. The performance of IRT systems will be evaluated in a small marine container environment in a succession of experiments of increasing complexity. Based on test findings and iterative design improvements, investigators will identify the attributes of a local transmitter/receiver network, analyze the expected cost-of-installation for a commercial system, and identify a strategy for integrating the local system with global tracking infrastructure. IRT will form a strategic collaboration with Savi, Inc., to facilitate rapid commercialization of the proposed system. Savi has a decade of experience in helping to build and support the world`s largest wireless cargo security and tracking system, called the Total Asset Visibility (TAV) network. TAV includes a software platform linked with automatic identification technology infrastructure at over 750 locations in more than 40 countries and monitors in excess of 300,000 conveyances equipped with smart radio tags.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040056 04110723
(FY04.1 Phase I)
A Wireless Location Network for Marine Asset Tracking

Pharad, LLC
797 Cromwell Park Drive
Suite V
Glen Burnie, MD 21061-2540

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,993.00

Pharad LLC proposes to design and develop a fully automated marine asset tracking system that incorporates active 'smart' Container Tags and a wireless communication network for precise container position location and monitoring. Such a system is vital for securing maritime cargo shipments and protecting US sea borders. Pharad's container tracking system will feature a location precision not available with existing systems, achieved via innovative design solutions for the Container Tag, Antenna Base Station and Central Station controller. The Container Tag will feature unique security features for detecting tampering or intrusion and other environmental conditions. The system will provide real-time visibility of all shipping containers in the terminal facility and onboard the ship, including current cargo location, transit history, container status information, and automatic alerts based on sensor alarms. For our solution, we are proposing a radio-based tag tracking system. To achieve the required location precision, we will undertake feasibility studies of the various tradeoffs in position location approaches, carry out accurate simulations of the radio signal propagation paths, develop new radio signal processing techniques, investigate a range of state-of-the-art RF and DSP technologies, and develop novel Container Tag and Base Station antenna designs.

H-SB04.1-005
Marine Asset Tag Tracking System

NBCHC040055 04110736
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Marine Asset Security Monitoring and Tracking System

Navigational Sciences, Inc.
2420 Mall Drive, Suite 100, Corporate Square I
Charleston, SC 29406-6520

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$76,325.00

The worldwide ocean going freight transportation infrastructure, known as the Marine Transportation System ("MTS") is the cornerstone of the global economic well-being. Approximately ninety percent of all cargo moves via the MTS. However, one need only look to the open movement of containerized cargo to find simple, effective, and efficient means of large-scale economic damage. The result is a conflict between security and efficiency in the MTS. Neither efficiency nor security can be sacrificed. Therefore, security monitoring and tracking technologies coupled with a centralized command and control infrastructure must be developed and deployed at the container level to secure the global supply chain and at the same time provide for greater supply chain management efficiency. Navigational Sciences, Inc. is strategically placed to implement a marine asset tracking system due to its expertise in GIS, asset tracking applications, global communications network development, and key assets in RFID technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information on the security, condition, and location of cargo will provide the intermodal shipping industry with the tools to combat terrorism, reduce theft, provide an audit trail, monitor the security of its insured assets, and empower the intelligence engines that protect our homeland.

H-SB04.1-006
AIS Tracking and Collision Avoidance Equipment for Small Boats

NBCHC040091 04110073
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Low-cost AIS Device for Small Boats

Pharad, LLC
797 Cromwell Park Drive
Suite V
Glen Burnie, MD 21061-2540

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,998.00

Pharad proposes the design of a low cost Class B Basic AIS device that will be compliant with IEC 62287 testing requirements. Such a low cost AIS device is key to the wide scale deployment of AIS in vessels operating in US waters. Our innovative approach to achieving a commercially ready, low cost device employs components and manufacturing processes found in consumer electronics sold in national electronics retailers. This allows us to reap the benefits of lower costs due to high volumes, and provides us a selection of available components and material with known reliability characteristics. Our proposed AIS device exhibits all the salient attributes of marine electronics, able to withstand the environmental conditions present on small commercial and recreational vessels. We will investigate decision synthesis methods, displays, and presentation methods to deliver warnings and hazard avoidance recommendations to assist the user in making intelligent navigational decisions. Another feature of our AIS device is the relative ease with which it can be upgraded with the latest navigational hazard avoidance algorithms via firmware. Since our AIS device is based upon commercial off-the-shelf technology, we will be able to quickly transition a quality product from development to manufacturing to distribution.

H-SB04.1-006
AIS Tracking and Collision Avoidance Equipment for Small Boats

NBCHC040095 04110453
(FY04.1 Phase I)
A Low Cost AIS Class B Compliant Small Vessel Tracking and Collision Avoidance System

International Maritime Information Systems USA, LLC
2917 Norman Circle
Duluth, GA 30096-3649

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

The goal of this proposed research is to determine the feasibility of developing and commercializing an innovative, low cost, high performance small boat tracking and collision avoidance device. Small boats are defined as being floating craft that fall into the category of port vessels, leisure, un-powered and small fishing craft. The device would be compatible with the Automatic Identification System [AIS] "Class B Basic" and the full Class A AIS environments. The device would provide similar benefits to the Class A AIS system without overloading the scarce RF resources in high traffic areas where small boats, Vessel Traffic Services, Aids to Navigation services and SOLAS and MTSA vessels co-exist. The device will use the standard AIS message set and is expected to be commercially available to the end user at a cost of or less than $250 each in its basic format. The research and initial tests will include the gathering of user and maritime authority opinions regarding available feature sets and proposed operation that is expected to deliver a device that is expected to be easy to sell to the small boat user group thereby enabling adoption through a value added purchase.

H-SB04.1-006
AIS Tracking and Collision Avoidance Equipment for Small Boats

NBCHC040087 04110729
(FY04.1 Phase I)
A novel method to produce very low cost Class B Basic AIS transponders

Shine Micro, Inc.
9405 Oak Bay Road
Suite A
Port Ludlow, WA 98365-8269

04/01/2004
to
07/15/2004
$98,875.00

A novel method is presented to produce very low cost Basic B AIS transponders. The result will be a very small, minimal cost product with a maximum of functionsality that can be easily installed in a few minutes. Because of its very low power consumption, it is also suitable for handheld, portable and solar powered use.

H-SB04.1-006
AIS Tracking and Collision Avoidance Equipment for Small Boats

NBCHC040089 04110960
(FY04.1 Phase I)
AIS Tracking and Collision Avoidance Equipment for Small Boats

Critical Technlogies Inc.
1001 Broad Street STE 400
Utica, NY 13501-1503

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,909.00

CTI proposes to develop a Class B Automatic Identification System device satisfying two major objectives: hardware cost reduction, so large numbers of smaller boats can be economically equipped; and software enhancement, to convert raw AIS data into decision-quality information, warnings and recommendations, displayed to facilitate rapid comprehension and collision avoidance maneuver by recreational boaters. The GPS receiver and the user interface subsystems can be either integrated with the VHF transceiver unit or externally coupled, enabling exploitation of boaters' existing GPS and display units to: reduce cost; minimize size, weight and power requirements on small boats; avoid overwhelming boaters with too many devices and displays competing for their attention while piloting their craft; and thereby overcome boater resistance to deployment. Significant hardware cost reduction and capability enhancement will derive from replacing the multiple VHF receivers and transmitter with a single Software Defined Radio transceiver, capable of simultaneously receiving on 3 channels or transmitting on AIS1 or AIS2. Software will refine AIS GPS data into information and display it suitably per human factors considerations. The results will be improved navigation and collision avoidance, ultimately improving safety and security for boaters, infrastructure and the public.

H-SB04.1-006
AIS Tracking and Collision Avoidance Equipment for Small Boats

NBCHC040104 04111166
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Low Cost RF AIS Tracking and Collision Avoidance system for Small Boats

S5 Wireless, Inc.
11778 Lone Peak Parkway, Suite 140
Draper, UT 84020-6807

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,998.00

S5 Wireless has developed a patent pending low cost, low power, long range, deep reach Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum-based wireless tracking and telemetry solution for metropolitan telemetry and tracking markets. This solution is designed to be easy and inexpensive to deploy, low cost and low power, with high triangulation accuracy. S5 Wireless believes that this system offers significant advantages in achieving the objectives of this solicitation.

H-SB04.1-007
Ship Compartment Inspection Device

NBCHC040105 04110036
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Handheld Lobster Eye X-Ray Inspection Device

Physical Optics Corporation
20600 Gramercy Place, Building 100
Torrance, CA 90501-1821

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,997.00

The war against terrorism requires the capability to inspect cargo through the walls of ship and boat compartments. For this purpose, the U.S. Coast Guard is seeking a handheld instrument that can accurately analyze and visualize material hidden from view behind walls and bulkheads. This inspection device must not endanger Coast Guard personnel or hidden illegal migrants, must be simple to operate, and must minimize disruption of commercial and private property. In response to this need, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new handheld monolithic Lobster Eye X-ray Inspection Device (LEXID) for real-time, through-wall high-resolution Compton backscatter X-ray inspection over an entire 2D field-of-view. LEXID's true focusing X-ray optics simultaneously focus and acquire ballistic Compton backscattering photons from an entire large scene, irradiated by a wide cone beam from a miniature X-ray source. In Phase I, POC will design and develop a preliminary LEXID to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase II, a preproduction LEXID will be fabricated and tested. The immediate application of LEXID is detection by USCG personnel of illegal cargo, migrants, and other contraband aboard ships and boats.

H-SB04.1-007
Ship Compartment Inspection Device

NBCHC040092 04110056
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Associated Particle Imaging Shipboard Inspection System

Dynamics Technology, Inc.
21311 Hawthorne Blvd. Suite 300
Torrance, CA 90503-5610

04/01/2004
to
11/19/2004
$100,000.00

Dynamics Technology, Inc. (DTI) will develop a man-portable shipboard inspection system based on Associated Particle Imaging (API) technology, which can provide through-wall imaging behind bulkheads and within containers, along with automated threat material identification. The system builds on a decade of research by DTI and its partners, encompassing explosives identification, current government-sponsored R&D for related API applications, and recent progress in commercial components that supports rugged cost-effective systems development. Associated particle imaging is a neutron imaging technique that is particularly well suited to shipboard inspection because of its unique capability to provide: (1) man-portable inspection capability, (2) 3-D imagery to greatly enhance clutter suppression and improve automated material identification; and (2) penetration of steel bulkheads at high SNR. In Phase I, DTI will define operational requirements, perform an analytical feasibility assessment, provide supporting API measurements to validate the concept, identify advanced component tradeoffs, and define Phase II R&D requirements. In Phase II, we will develop advanced components and processing technology needed to achieve the functional and operational goals of a shipboard inspection system.

H-SB04.1-007
Ship Compartment Inspection Device

NBCHC040106 04110244
(FY04.1 Phase I)
See-Thru-Eye

Technology International Incorporated of Virginia
429 W. Airline, Suite S
LaPlace, LA 70068-3817

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

This Phase I SBIR research effort involves a feasibility study and an in-depth investigation into technologies that would be applied in ship compartment inspection to ensure full space accountability. A trade study will identify the most promising technology to develop and design a handheld, man-portable See-Thru-Eye capable of penetrating a host of barriers of different thicknesses and construction material including wood, fiberglass, plastics and steel and seeing through walls, bulkheads, etc. to accurately analyze and provide information on material hidden from vision with minimal or no disruption of commercial and private properties. The baseline design employs a combination of non destructive techniques based on x-ray technology and infrasound technology. The See-Thru-Eye is appropriate for remote inspection of concealed compartments as well as for detection of illegal cargo in the open environment aboard marine vessels. Illegal cargo includes smuggled illegal migrants and contraband (such as explosives, drugs, etc.). The See-Thru-Eye can be used by a broad range of U.S. Coast Guard personnel; with little or no advanced technical education and requires minimal training to become efficient in its operation.

H-SB04.1-007
Ship Compartment Inspection Device

NBCHC040102 04110998
(FY04.1 Phase I)
PDA-EDIT Scanner for Coast Guard Ship Inspection

BFA Sales
8401 Washington Place NE
Albuquerque, NM 87113-

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$98,000.00

The technology to be developed in the Phase I efforts is based on prior research in Electromagnetic (EM) gradiometry and Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). The combination of these approaches has been used in successful demonstrations in the mining industry for determining coal depth and scanning ahead for barriers/obstructions. Each technology has been proven to mitigate specific problems that occur with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Phase I efforts will be dedicated to adapting these technologies into a handheld device that can be used to search for hidden rooms and compartments on board sea-borne vessels. Essentially, the theory behind checking for an undocumented room or storage area is the same as for looking for anomalies in a coal seam. Thus, much of the preliminary research has already been completed, and it is more a matter of fine-tuning it for a new set of detection parameters.

H-SB04.1-007
Ship Compartment Inspection Device

NBCHC040117 04111094
(FY04.1 Phase I)
advanced ultrasonic inspection device

Ceres Biotechnology
800 East Clay Street
suite 16
Richmond, VA 23219-1534

04/19/2004
to
11/01/2004
$100,000.00

What is proposed is a listener analysis of ultrasonic echoes generated in fluid filled tanks. Ultrasonic hearing humans is possible and the firm has a SBIR on a related device for the blind. The company also has the rights to an ultrasonic hearing air patent. The brain is capable of extracting the ultrasonic signal from the tank

H-SB04.1-007
Ship Compartment Inspection Device

NBCHC040107 04111186
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Photogrammetric Compartment Modeling System

Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc.
2520 W. 237th Street
Torrance, CA 90505-5217

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,995.00

It is critical to prevent terrorists, or other smugglers, from using the spaces, holds, and cargo containers aboard ships and boats, to smuggle contraband into our Nation. To date, most surveillance efforts have focused on vision through the wall systems; surprisingly little attention has been paid to identifying and locating possible hidden areas. A clear identification of these areas could significantly reduce the time expended on cargo searches. Intelligent Optical Systems proposes to develop a Photogrammetric Compartment Modeling System (PCMS) that will provide accurate 3-dimensional photogrammetric measurements. This system will integrate multiple images obtained through a digital camera, with laser diode-based distance measurements. A 3-D model of the ship, showing hidden areas, will be reconstructed using photogrammetric methods. This system will provide a comprehensive 3-D visualization model, highlighting hidden spaces and their volumes. IOS`s unique approach will enable the development of a high performance PCMS technology that can be used with existing handheld wall-penetrating devices to detect and locate clandestine cargo. In Phase I, IOS will design and develop a preliminary proof-of-concept model. In Phase II, IOS will integrate the PCMS technology into a 3-D compartment search and analysis system.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040067 04110116
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Development of a Secure SCADA Protocol Converter and Gateway for the Electric Power Sector

EnerNex Corporation
144E Market Place Boulevard
Knoxville, TN 37922-2337

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

SCADA systems play an important role in the nation's critical infrastructure. They provide remote monitoring and control for a number of industries. Many organizations have assessed these systems and have found them to be at risk to cyber attack. At the present time, there are millions of SCADA data collection points in the field using a multitude of communication protocols, most of which are inherently insecure. The purpose of this Phase 1 research is to evaluate the requirements and feasibility of implementing high security encryption using IEC 61850 in low cost gateways suitable for securing new and existing SCADA systems. If implemented, the resulting device would embody a protocol converter and gateway based on low cost, off-the-shelf hardware. The project would implement a wide variety of cryptographic and other technologies to secure IEC 61850 and related protocols, and then evaluate the performance of these systems. The idea is to demonstrate that strong security can be implemented on small, low cost systems without compromise. If successful, this effort could yield an easily implementable, low cost means to enhance the security of electric power SCADA systems.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040088 04110185
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Crypto-Secure Remote Terminal Unit for New and Retrofit Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

The Right Stuff of Tahoe, Incorporated
The Right Place, 3341 Adler Court
Reno, NV 89503-1263

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,999.00

We propose to develop an integrated Cryptography Module (CM) and RTU (CMRTU) for SCADA applications. When used in CM mode, our CMRTU will be easily retrofitted into existing SCADA networks. When used in advanced RTU mode (where higher bandwidth connections are available), our CMRTU will provide both a secure gateway function and secure Internet protocols for interaction with either central monitoring station SCADA display systems, or with web-based operator interfaces used for direct monitoring and control. As a single device, our CMRTU combines, in a novel fashion, two distinct communications security provisions: (a) the AGA 12-1SCADA Link Security (SLS) protocols, for low-speed links; and (b) Secure Sockets with HTTP, for high-speed Internet protocols. At the device end, the CMRTU will support fieldbus protocols to enable it to communicate with sensors, actuators, and existing RTUs. During Phase 1, we will complete a design and demonstrate feasibility. Our work plan is feasible in large part due to our use of off-the-shelf protocol stacks and related software. The likelihood of project success is bolstered by our extensive experience in industrial control, SCADA security, and software development for projects of a similar scale.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040093 04110195
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Innovative SCADA Security Mechanism

Dunti LLC
3925 W. Braker Lane
Austin, TX 78759-

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

Today, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) is popularly deployed in automated control system of many of the Nation's critical infrastructures. Most of these systems were designed and built for operational efficiency. With cyber attack becoming an important factor, it is becoming essential to protect SCADA systems. Over the past couple of years industry is integrating many security features like firewall, VPN, IDS, and encryption to protect SCADA systems from cyber attacks. This project proposes an innovative mechanism that will introduce security, high visibility, intrusion prevention & detection, geographic awareness, and higher efficiency along with allowing integration of industry standard security mechanisms. This technology will be able to integrate into many of the popular SCADA software system enabling user transparency. This mechanism is flexible and applicable to most industry sectors such as electric power generation, water and wastewater treatment, gas industry, chemical processing, etc. This technology virtually eliminates hack attacks and data hijacking. It also pinpoints the exact location of any attempted hack attacks enabling quick response.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040071 04110288
(FY04.1 Phase I)
A Toolkit for Next Generation Electric Power Grid SCADA System Cybersecurity Protection and Research

Stan Klein Associates, LLC
P.O. Box 2523
Rockville, MD 20847-2523

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,960.00

This proposal focuses on developing advanced protection methods for the emerging next generation of electric power grid SCADA technology. A major concern that has been expressed by participants in the development of such methods is the need for a reference implementation of the next generation SCADA technology for use by researchers. This concern is addressed by developing a toolkit for next-generation electric power SCADA security protection and by implementing the technology in a manner open to other researchers for development of improved SCADA security. Components of the toolkit will address basic SCADA master station infrastructure, encryption, end node operating system security, and SCADA system intrusion detection. The end node operating system security will be based on Security Enhanced Linux and responds to another concern being expressed within the community addressing next generation electric power SCADA security. An important component of the toolkit will be a reference implementation of the next generation standard protocol for electric utility SCADA systems, which is based on Utility Communications Architecture, UCA (TM of EPRI), technology. The toolkit components can be used to protect SCADA master stations and substation/poletop devices, and to support separate security monitoring of the SCADA system.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040109 04110674
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Affordable, Covert Power Grid Monitoring System

FieldMetrics
14813 Seminole Trail
Seminole, FL 33776-1081

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

An advanced monitoring system is proposed to improve the security and reliability for the electric utility power grid. Next generation sensor platforms deployed across distribution and transmission systems will communicate in real-time with a central monitoring hub via a secure wireless network. The advanced monitoring system will provide a backup for existing SCADA systems and sensors in the event of equipment failure or terrorist attack on the power grid infrastructure and improve the ability of utility operators to respond to such events.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040099 04110738
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Improved Security Information Management for SCADA Intrusion Detection Systems

Expert Microsystems, Inc.
7932 Country Trail Drive, Suite 1
Orangevale, CA 95662-2120

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

Having achieved success for NASA equipment health monitoring applications, Expert Microsystems will develop new SCADA security solutions derived from its pattern recognition and decision support software. Using our patent pending "predict, detect, decide" techniques, we will develop an innovative decision support tool providing automated intrusion detection system (IDS) information management. We will train our software models using SCADA IDS data from the DOE's Western Area Power Administration (WAPA), which has electrical power transmission and distribution logs for fifteen U.S. states. We will conduct comprehensive analyses to characterize normal (no cyber intrusion) and abnormal (high risk of security breach) SCADA system behavior. Our approach will reduce the high number of "false positive" indications and will provide an effective method of filtering the vast amounts of data that limit the effectiveness of IDS solutions today. We will solicit design input from SCADA users in diverse operating environments and will review our prototype solution with DHS officials and WAPA to assure our Phase II/III approach is relevant to a broad base of critical infrastructure. Our commercial and government transition vision is to integrate our improved solution with market leading IDS software and provide comprehensive services supporting these infrastructure applications.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040094 04110748
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Incorporating standards based security infrastructure in J2EE based secure SCADA systems

Starthis, Inc.
10600 W Higgins Road Suite 414
Rosemont, IL 60018-3718

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

Migrating SCADA applications onto Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) Application Servers such as IBM's WebSphere and BEA's WebLogic provides access to the benefits of scalability, reliability, maintainability and security of this well tested and standards based platform. Unlike traditional monolithic applications the J2EE platform allows reliable, robust SCADA applications to be constructed by combining the iTapestry industrial automation middleware from Starthis with a wide variety of enterprise data analysis and reporting tools from established enterprise software vendors. The iTapestry middleware provides a bridge between enterprise applications on the application server and industrial automation hardware in networked or remote industrial settings. This project proposes to investigate different approaches to integrating into this architecture the full range of benefits of the J2EE security infrastructure. This will provide standards based support for secure communications between server and remote automation hardware and leverage standards such as J2EE role based security and the Java Authentication and Authorization Service to provide secure access control. This project will not develop new security infrastructure, rather it will integrate existing security standards with the only available middleware product, which links the J2EE platform with distributed industrial automation environments.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040097 04110821
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Advanced Secure Supervisory and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Realted Discribution Control Systems

Asier Technology Corporation
5068 West Plano Parkway, Suite 336
Plano, TX 75093-4408

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,478.00

The goal of this study is to attempt to place, where possible, highly efficient encryption and authentication algorithms in legacy devices already installed in the SCADA network. Where this is not possible, low cost inline security units will be proposed. On the larger scale, multi-level secure Internet protocols will be examined as a method to facilitate the sharing of control and status information between authenticated and authorized utilities and security agencies in times of crisis. This multilevel secure Internet protocol could allow a laptop computer with a properly authorized and authenticated operator to log on and view critical status information and begin immediate mitigation in the event of a major network issue even if both the primary and redundant control centers are inaccessible.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040078 04110880
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Intrusion Detection and Security Monitoring of SCADA Networks

Digital Bond, Inc.
1580 Sawgrass Corp. Pkwy, Suite 130
Sunrise, FL 33323-2859

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$100,000.00

Legacy SCADA systems, and the systems being sold today, lack the security required to prevent attacks. Intrusion detection systems (IDS) and security monitoring tools can work as compensating controls by identifying and stopping attacks. Unfortunately, existing security systems do not identify SCADA specific attacks. Our proposal will add SCADA specific knowledge to IDS and security monitoring tools. Specifically, we will: (1) create an open source SCADA signature set for the SNORT IDS that will include specific signature examples, a context, and a tool for SCADA vendors and users to add system specific signatures. (2) identify and extract security specific log entries in SCADA application logs for use in a security monitoring tool. Examples include failed logins, display changes, and escalation of privileges. (3) Correlate the SCADA application log events and the SCADA IDS data to appropriately set the alert level. The technical approach will focus on identifying attacks to the field device, RTU/PLC, to SCADA server communication. With TCP/IP based field devices spread over a wide geographic area, and the lack of a security standard for this protocol, this communication is perhaps the largest cyber security risk. Our proposal is an immediate compensating control for this risk.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040068 04110895
(FY04.1 Phase I)
SCADA IDS

SNVC
12150 Monument Drive
Suite 510
Fairfax, VA 22033-4063

04/01/2004
to
07/31/2004
$99,850.00

Legacy Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) has no cyber security - messages are in clear text; messages are unauthenticated; management commands are issued via dial up ports protected by weak passwords and administered by poor password administration practices. This results in either inadequate security or a potential for denial of service. Based on the type of utility infrastructure involved, an intelligent attacker, or threat agent, would focus his/her efforts on the appropriate vulnerability to cause the most damage possible. In the case of electricity, attacks through the backdoor maintenance ports may be more devastating than attacks through the front door SCADA network; by changing protective relay settings, the attacker can effectively disable all built-in protective circuitry within a portion of the electrical grid. In liquids utilities, i.e.; gas, oil and water pipelines, attacks through the front door SCADA network may be more devastating; by repeatedly issuing 'open valve' and 'close valve' messages, a "hammer effect" can be created which could rupture pipelines or damage valves and pumps.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040069 04110929
(FY04.1 Phase I)
State-based Security Policies for Electric Power SCADAs

ATC-NY
33 Thornwood Drive, Suite 500
Ithaca, NY 14850-1280

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,957.00

ATC-NY and Bigwood Systems, Inc. will design and build Zebra, an innovative access control system for electric power SCADA systems. Access control decisions will depend on the dynamic state of the electric transmission/distribution system, in addition to conventional inputs such as identity. We will develop SCADA Access Control Language (SACL) as a means of establishing the policy to be enforced at each deployment of Zebra. The language will extend classical concepts of access control to encompass our new concept of state-based access control. The primary tasks in Phase I will be to design the details of the access control language, and the architecture.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040098 04111098
(FY04.1 Phase I)
Protection of SCADA Systems Using Physics-Based Authentication and Location Awareness Technologies

Digital Authentication Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 811564
Boca Raton, FL 33481-1564

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,180.91

The integrated system proposed here by the DAT team includes the addition of access control points governed by DAT's strong authentication system. Such access control points involve minimum cost of deployment and should allow direct integration into existing legacy SCADA systems. The DAT system fuses 7 different credentials into an incalculable and continually dynamic authentication system. Although the specific operation of the system in the SCADA environment will developed in the course of the proposed SBIR, a preview of the specific credentials that must all be co-resident before access is authenticated (described below in further detail) include: 1. User specific information, such as biometrics. 2. The processor ID number on the user's authorized computer. 3. The volume ID number on the user's authorized ID number. 4. The DAT electronics ID number. 5. The LSDFTM historical table of physics based secrets (captured in the past by the user each time he logged in.) 6. The user's location, based on the use of the location awareness component of the DAT system to determine whether or not the user resides at a pre-approved location. 7. The correct sliding port target for access.

H-SB04.1-008
Advanced Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Related Distributed Control Systems

NBCHC040081 04111216
(FY04.1 Phase I)
CKM-based Management System for SCADA/DCS operations

TecSec
1953 Gallows Road
Suite 220, VA 22182-4003

04/01/2004
to
10/15/2004
$99,960.00

TecSec's CKM technology and tool kit will be used to develop an effective, easy to use, Secure Cryptographic Management System (SCMS) to protect SCADA systems/network. The management scheme will be designed to meet all unique requirements for SCADA/DCS operations, and provide a seamless migration of future protection schemes. The SCMS facilitates an RBAC methodology that can be set up to reflect the organizational units operating rules and procedures of an end user, and extends seamlessly the security procedures for SCADA/DCS operations. CKM technology systemizes key creation, implementing dual control or split knowledge by using key components to construct the final working key. This working key may be used in several ways including a session key, for a store-and-forward application such as e-mail, and for file encryption applications such as archiving, or protecting file information until accessed by a user.