Abstracts of FY09.2 Phase II Awards



American Science and Engineering, Inc.
829 Middlesex Turnpike
Billerica, MA 01821-3907

Proposal Information 0922010 - AS&E Phase II Aircraft Scanner
Topic Information H-SB09.2-001 - Mobile General Aviation (GA) Aircraft Screener
Award/Contract Number D11PC20001

In this Phase II effort, American Science & Engineering, Inc. (AS&E) will design, fabricate, test and deliver a mobile X-ray Backscatter one-sided imaging system suitable for examining general aviation aircraft for the presence of weapons, contraband or other proscribed items. The system employs a high resolution X-ray Backscatter imaging module mounted on an omni-directional host platform, providing exceptional motion control and versatility for imaging key points on general aviation aircraft, including engines, wings, fuselage, and empennage. The system incorporates collision avoidance to prevent any inadvertent contact with the object being scanned. Real time imagery is displayed to the operator, who controls the system from a co-located graphical user interface. The operator can manipulate and analyze the resulting images using the included software toolkit. The aircraft scanner can be easily moved from location to location within the airport using its own power, or it can be loaded onto a standard flatbed transport for more distant relocations. The system is safe for the operator, the item scanned and the surrounding area. A prototype system, training, manuals and support will be provided within the twelve month program.



Scientific Systems Company, Inc.
500 West Cummings Park, Suite 3000
Woburn, MA 01801-6562

Proposal Information 0922002 - DiamondBack: Sensor Fusion and Feature-Based Human/Animal Classification for UGS
Topic Information H-SB09.2-002 - Human-Animal Discrimination Capability for Unattended Ground Sensors
Award/Contract Number D11PC20039

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) needs a low cost reliable automated system to detect illegal border crossings. Current seismic UGS systems use cadence-based intrusion detection algorithms and are easily confused between humans and animals. The ensuing false alarms reduce the trustworthiness of the system and lead to unnecessary actions which may be costly. Scientific Systems Company Inc. (SSCI) through its Phase I research has developed and tested novel signal processing and classification algorithms to robustly discriminate between humans, animals and vehicles. SSCI identified that foot contact characteristics have a significant impact on the time-frequency characterization of recorded seismic signals. SCCI is teaming with Crane Wireless Systems (Crane WMS) and Applied Research Associates (ARA) for the Phase II work. SSCI will provide the signal processing and classification expertise, and Crane Wireless Monitoring Solutions and Applied Research Associates, both leading provides of Seismic Unattended Ground Sensors, will provide the hardware platform and systems support for porting the classification algorithms onto the UGS sensors. The UGS sensors will be field tested with input from the DHS for performance evaluation. SSCI intends to transition and commercialize the UGS technology using licensing arrangements for the signal processing, classification and power management algorithms.



GrammaTech, Inc.
317 N. Aurora Street
Ithaca, NY 14850-4201

Proposal Information 0922001 - Multi-Platform Program Analysis
Topic Information H-SB09.2-004 - Software Testing and Vulnerability Analysis
Award/Contract Number D11PC20009

The current generation of advanced static-analysis tools find vulnerabilities by exploring all possible executions of a program as configured for a single platform. Phase I research confirmed that a significant number of platform-specific defects may be missed if analysis is restricted to a single platform. The next quantum leap in capability will be a system that will explore all executions for many different platforms simultaneously. We propose to develop such a system by combining a number of state-of-the-art techniques. Novel continuous integration technology will allow distribution of concurrent analyses across a farm of heterogeneous machines. Advances in our static-analysis engine will exploit machine-code analysis to ferret out subtle platform-specific differences in behavior. Intelligent test-case-generation technology will find test inputs that trigger platform-specific defects. The results of these analyses will be collated, filtered, ranked, and presented to the analyst as a single combined report. The resulting analysis system will appeal to software producers in many market segments, including communications, medical electronics, avionics, and industrial control.


Data Access Technologies, Inc
8605 Westwood Center Drive
Suite 503/505
Vienna, VA 22182-2231

Proposal Information 0922003 - Run Time Tools` Output Integration Framework
Topic Information H-SB09.2-004 - Software Testing and Vulnerability Analysis
Award/Contract Number D11PC20012

This proposal addresses the key issue in the normalization of software assurance information, how to integrate the vulnerability findings reported by multiple vulnerability detection tools. The normalization will provide normalized, consistent reporting on type of identified weakness (alignment with CWE) as well as normalized, consistent reporting on location and trace of identified weakness within code (source or binary). The project will build upon and extend the results of several recent government-funded programs in the area of software assurance. The phase II R&D effort will utilize phase I deliverables and accomplishments to complete the project and deliver (1) an open-standard-based Run Time Tool Output Integration Framework (TOIF) and (2) the integration of several existing open source vulnerability detection tools into this framework. This will mitigate one of the major practical gaps with today`s software assurance tools, the non-overlapping findings of the current tools and will enable cross-examining the vulnerabilities reported by different tools, something that is currently very dependant on human verification and therefore very laborious. This would enable using multiple vulnerability detection tools in a coordinated manner. The anticipated results will be made available to the community (as open source) of tools vendors, leading to further improvements in vulnerability detection tools through normalization of their outputs, better alignment with existing standards, and better exchanges of software assurance information.


Applied Visions, Inc.
6 Bayview Avenue
Northport, NY 11768-1502

Proposal Information 0922004 - Software Assurance Analysis and Visual Analytics
Topic Information H-SB09.2-004 - Software Testing and Vulnerability Analysis
Award/Contract Number D11PC20010

To increase confidence that software is secure, researchers and vendors have developed different kinds of automated software security analysis tools. These tools analyze software for weaknesses and vulnerabilities, but produce massive data with many false positives. Further, the individual tools catch different vulnerabilities, often with little overlap. The NSA tested five static code analysis tools and found that 84pct of the vulnerabilities were identified by only one tool. These results point to the need to combine and correlate the results of multiple tools to ensure comprehensive vulnerability analysis. However, the disparate interfaces and non-normalized results of each tool make correlation of their results taxing to the software developer. The Secure Decisions Division of Applied Visions Inc. is developing a Software Assurance Analysis and Visual Analytics platform that integrates the results of disparate software analysis tools into a visual environment for triage and exploration of code vulnerabilities. Software developers can explore voluminous vulnerability results to uncover hidden trends, triage the most important code weaknesses, and show who is responsible for introducing software vulnerabilities. Visual analytics focus the user`s attention on the most pressing vulnerabilities. By correlating and normalizing data from multiple tools, the overall vulnerability detection coverage of software is increased.



Li Creative Technologies, Inc.
25 B Hanover Road, Suite 140
Florham Park, NJ 07932-1924

Proposal Information 0922012 - Noise Cancellation for Voice Operated Switch (VOX) Communication
Topic Information H-SB09.2-006 - Noise Cancellation for Voice Operated Switch (VOX) Communications
Award/Contract Number D11PC20002

Effective communication between first responders is extremely important not only to accomplishing tasks but also to personal safety. However, because first responders usually work in a high-noise environment, the communication clarity is severely degraded. A variety of solutions to improve the communication efficiency have been tried, but none of them completely solve the problem. The purpose of this project is to present a novel and promising noise attenuation solution for first responder to effectively communicate in high-noise operation environment regardless of the communications mode (through radios in push-to-talk mode, VOX mode and without radios). After careful review the system requirement and several discussions with local firefighters, we designed a complete noise cancellation solution with the following four modules in one device: two new acoustic sensors, audio signal processing module, one loudspeaker and radio interface. The two acoustic sensors replaced traditional microphones and achieved significant improvement in speech signal-to-noise ratio and the speech intelligibility in firefighter communications. Our Phase II deliverables are several prototypes in the product level. They will fully meet the DHS` requirement and significantly benefit first responders` communication. The new device will be ready for large quantity manufacturing by the end of Phase II.



Design Interactive, Inc.
1221 East Broadway, Ste. 110
Oviedo, FL 32765-7829

Proposal Information 0922016 - Screeners Auto-Diagnostic Adaptive Precision Training (Screen-ADAPT) System
Topic Information H-SB09.2-007 - Enhancing Training Effectiveness through Cognitive State Assessment
Award/Contract Number D11PC20053

Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Officers are at the forefront of our nation`s security, and are tasked with screening every bag boarding commercial aircraft within the United States. It is a repetitive visual search task that has a very low probability of encountering a threat, but extremely high consequences if a serious threat is missed. Currently, training instructors base their assessments of trainee progress solely on performance outcomes and observation from classroom and on the job performance. This effort will develop an advanced adaptive training system for baggage screeners using a combination of physiological and neurophysiological measures, including EEG, eye tracking, and heart rate to gain insights into an officer`s `unobservable` behavior, and advanced training science to diagnose and mitigate training deficiencies/inefficiencies in real-time to optimize individualized, precision training. Neurophysiological measures can provide insights into cognitive processing during baggage screening tasks and indicate training proficiency via continuous monitoring of workload, drowsiness, and distraction, as well as expertise level. Performance, cognitive state, expertise level, and eye tracking will be used to drive real time training adaptations and after-action reviews. The goal of the proposed adaptive training system is to provide individualized, tailored training to optimize training effectiveness and efficiency.



Perpetua Power Source Technologies, Inc.
4314 SW Research Way
Corvallis, OR 97333-1070

Topic Information H-SB09.2-008 - Wearable Energy to Power and Operate Responder Tools (Wearable EPORT)
Award/Contract Number D10PC20013

The human body is a near perfect energy generator. Demand for energy harvesting innovation, along with technology advances in thin film thermoelectric generators and highly efficient DC/DC boost circuitry now place wearable thermoelectric power harvesting within reach. The objective of Perpetua`s Phase II proposal is to deliver an energy harvesting system for first responder applications powered by the human body. Building on Perpetua`s successful demonstration of wearable thermoelectric generators in Phase I, this proposal combines advances in wearable thermoelectric generators, power electronics, ultra low power transceivers, and physiological sensors integrated into a first responder jacket. In collaboration with emergency response personnel, Perpetua will field test the developed jackets. Building on several decades of experience with thermoelectric generators, system design and product integration, Perpetua will architect modular systems for wearable body energy harvesting. Perpetua`s creative approach with best-in-class technology overcomes the traditional obstacles that have prevented energy harvesting from the human body to produce adequate voltage and usable power. Wearable human body thermoelectric generators promise power solutions for autonomous self-powered sensors reducing the weight, size, and limited life of primary battery power. Long life and small dimensions are particularly important and advantageous for sensor systems for the first responder.


FlexEl, LLC
FlexEl, LLC
387 Technology Drive
College Park, MD 20742-3371

Proposal Information 0924007 - A Wearable Battery Cloth
Topic Information H-SB09.2-008 - Wearable Energy to Power and Operate Responder Tools (Wearable EPORT)
Award/Contract Number D10PC20017

This Phase II technical proposal provides a comprehensive description of the proposed work for further development and commercialization of a wearable battery cloth for first responders, as part of the Wearable Energy to Power and Operate Responder Tools program. During Phase I, a breakthrough discovery led to more than an order of magnitude improvement in battery capacity per unit area. While this discovery was not anticipated at the outset, it now allows the power available to first responders through a jacket lined with a battery-cloth product to be increased commensurately, without compromising mobility or weight. Whereas a square meter of material was originally conceived to replace a handful of AA batteries, today it holds the promise of providing the power of as many as 70 AA batteries. FlexEl`s business strategy centers on commercialization of the battery cloth product concept. This Phase II proposal is designed to allow us to achieve the milestones necessary to privately finance full-scale production and broad-based commercialization.