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Awards

Topic Information Award/Contract Number Proposal Information Company Performance
Period
Award/Contract
Value
Abstract

12.1-001
High Purity Precursor Materials for Growth of Large Single Crystals

HSHQDC-12-C-00093 DNDOSBIR12-01-FP-001-CAPE
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase I)
Establishment of Scientific and Industrial Base for Production of High Purity Precursor Materials for SrI2:Eu and CLYC

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Suite 1B
Natick, MA 01760-1325

09/19/2012
to
03/18/2013
$150,000.00

Successful growth of novel halide scintillators SrI2:Eu and CLYC depends on a supply of highly pure precursor materials. CapeSym and SAFC will partner to provide holistic analysis of the nature of precursor impurities and their impact on scintillator performance. We will characterize light and heavy impurities, purify the material through novel techniques, and re-test outputs. In parallel we will conduct pricing analysis to estimate the volumes required to reach various cost targets. In this way we will begin to measure and correlate the relationship between impurities, scintillator yield, and processing costs. Anticipated benefits include: - increased understanding of binary-halide contamination issues - improved precursor processing techniques - improved scintillator performance - a roadmap for attaining precursor cost reduction

12.1-001
High Purity Precursor Materials for Growth of Large Single Crystals

HSHQDC-13-C-00080 DNDOSBIR12-01-FP-001-CAPE-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Establishment of Scientific and Industrial Base for Production of High Purity Precursor Materials for SrI2: Eu and CLYC

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Suite 1B
Natick, MA 01760-1325

08/12/2013
to
07/31/2015
$998,062.73

Successful growth of novel halide scintillators SrI2:Eu and CLYC depends on a supply of highly pure precursor materials. CapeSym and SAFC have partnered to develop a thorough understanding of the factors that influence purity, and techniques to reduce these impurity levels in SrI2:Eu and CLYC precursors. Novel processing and crystal growth experiments at CapeSym, and materials characterization at SAFC-Hitech will be used to assess the impact of purification techniques. Technologies will be transferred to SAFC-Hitech for implementation into production processes. In parallel we will conduct market research and pricing analysis to better estimate volumes needed to meet DHS requirements. Anticipated benefits include: - increased understanding of binary-halide contamination issues - improved precursor processing techniques - improved scintillator performance - a roadmap for attaining precursor cost reduction.

12.1-002
Embedding of Advanced Search Technique for Detect, Locate, and Track for Pedestrian-based Search

HSHQDC-12-C-00087 DNDOSBIR12-02-FP-001-PSI
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase I)
Embedded Algorithms for Radioactive Source Localization and Tracking During Advanced Pedestrian Search

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

09/17/2012
to
03/16/2013
$149,998.00

Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop a set of novel algorithms enabling enhanced pedestrian search capability against radioactive sources when using handheld, belt, or backpack mounted detector systems. The proposed approaches will result in a capability to localize the source. In addition, the source will be associated with visible objects to aid tracking and interdiction. The solution represents a low cost augmentation of personal radiation detectors (PRDs) through the use of advanced algorithms running on COTS mobile computing devices (MCDs) such as smartphones and tablets. PSI¿s approach will achieve initial source localization accuracy of 15' (azimuth) and 5 meters (range) in 30 seconds. They will achieve an accuracy of 3 meters in two dimensions after a two-minute sampling of radiation fields during wide area search missions. This capability will be demonstrated against a 1 mCi source at 20 meters using PRDs with a nominal sensitivity of > 250 cps/uSv.h. The Phase I effort will develop first-generation search algorithms which will be validated with synthetic data as well as data collected during field tests. PSI will perform a systematic trade study and testing of COTS components, including MCD products, man-portable radiation detectors and open source software libraries. The result of the trade study will be used to generate a component-level conceptual design for a prototype system with embedded search algorithms. The Phase II program will develop a TRL-5 capability to be integrated with commercially available PRDs. We envision adoption of PSI's technology developed under the proposed program as a key component of Federal, State and Local efforts to enhance the capabilities of new and fielded radiation detection products.

12.1-002
Embedding of Advanced Search Technique for Detect, Locate, and Track for Pedestrian-based Search

HSHQDC-13-C-00083 DNDOSBIR12-02-FP-001-PSI-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Embedded Search and ID Algorithms for Human Portable Radiation Detectors

Physical Sciences Inc.
20 New England Business Center
Andover, MA 01810-1077

10/01/2013
to
09/30/2015
$999,785.00

Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to develop, implement, and test algorithms and hardware to enhance pedestrian search for radioactive threats employing man-portable radiation detectors through the use of advanced search techniques enabled by smartphone technology. The proposed solution will add significant value to the search missions carried out by first responders, customs and border protection officers, or military personnel engaged in pedestrian searches for radiological threats. The algorithms will analyze data from smartphone sensors (e.g. gyroscope, magnetometer, and camera) in conjunction with gamma spectra collected by a medium-resolution detector to determine and communicate to the user estimates of source location. The threat localization approach will be enhanced through the use of spectroscopic detection and identification information generated by advanced algorithms. These algorithms have been demonstrated to significantly improve detection sensitivity while reducing operational false alarms using low integration time spectra. The functionality will provide a complete search capability to the end users resulting in source localization inside a 100 m x 100 m search area within 10 minutes of entry. A nominal 1 mCi 137Cs threat will be localized to within 2 meters after 1-2 minutes from detection. The Phase II program will build upon algorithms supporting a systematic localization methodology developed and tested during the Phase I program. The Phase I system concept will be formulated into detailed software/hardware designs. The search algorithms will be embedded as part of a prototype Smart Hand Held Detector (SHHD) to facilitate the optimization of search methods and to enable testing and evaluation. The Phase II base program will result in a TRL 4 brassboard prototype that will be extensively tested in relevant environments. In Year 2 of the effort, independent testing by third parties will be used as a means to evaluate system performance and to collect user feedback. The feedback will be incorporated in a review of the prototype design and CONOPS, which will be modified as necessary. At the end of the successful program, PSI will demonstrate a TRL 5 capability that achieves the SHHD Threshold Key Performance Parameters. The SHHD will be at a sufficient MRL for low-rate initial production. Sales of the pedestrian search capability will be through value added resellers of detector technology and will be complemented by the licensing of algorithm capability for full integration into hand-held detector and portal screening systems.

12.1-002
Embedding of Advanced Search Technique for Detect, Locate, and Track for Pedestrian-based Search

HSHQDC-12-C-00092 DNDOSBIR12-02-FP-001-PSPT
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase I)
Integration of Inertial Measurement Data for Improved Localization and Tracking of Radiation Sources

Passport Systems, Inc
70 Treble Cove Road
N Billerica, MA 01862-2208

09/21/2012
to
03/20/2013
$149,323.45

spectra collected on handheld or personal RIID and SPRD devices.

12.1-002
Embedding of Advanced Search Technique for Detect, Locate, and Track for Pedestrian-based Search

HSHQDC-13-C-00046 DNDOSBIR12-02-FP-002-PSPT-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Integration of Inertial Measurement Data for Improved Localization and Tracking of Radiation Sources

Passport Systems, Inc
70 Treble Cove Road
North Billerica, MA 01862-2208

08/26/2013
to
04/30/2015
$791,362.58

abstractAlgorithms to extract relative positioning from IMU data will be developed and implemented, and existing advanced Bayesian inference algorithms will be updated to utilize relative position data. The goal of the Phase II program is to provide fully integrated and tested pre-production radiation detectors with the improved search capability for further evaluation and CONOPs development. These pre-production devices will demonstrate the commercial viability of the enhanced search algorithms within a networked system of commercial radiation detectors.

12.1-004
Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Modules for Room-Temperature Gamma Radiation Detection

HSHQDC-13-C-00082 DNDOSBIR12-01-FP-004-CAPE-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
Defect Engineering of Thallium Bromide (TlBr) for Room Temperature Gamma Radiation Detection

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Suite 1B
Natick, MA 01760-1325

08/12/2013
to
08/11/2015
$992,258.57

TlBr is a promising gamma radiation semiconductor detector material primarily due to its high Z component and high density. TlBr detectors, however, suffer from polarization at room temperature and degrade rapidly under applied bias. Polarization is associated with ionic conductivity in this material. This proposal is focused on controlling the point, chemical, and crystalline defects in TlBr to minimize ionic conduction, and thereby enable operation of this promising detector at room temperature.

12.1-004
Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Modules for Room-Temperature Gamma Radiation Detection

HSHQDC-12-C-00099 DNDOSBIR12-04-FP-001-CAPE
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase I)
Defect Engineering of TlBr for Room Temperature Radiation Detection

CapeSym, Inc.
6 Huron Drive
Suite 1B
Natick, MA 01760-1325

09/18/2012
to
03/19/2013
$150,000.00

TlBr is a promising gamma radiation semiconductor detector material primarily due to its high Z component and high density. TlBr detectors, however, suffer from polarization at room temperature and degrade rapidly under applied bias. Polarization is associated with ionic conductivity in this material. This proposal is focused on controlling the point, chemical, and crystalline defects in TlBr to minimize ionic conduction, and thereby enable operation of this promising detector at room temperature.

12.1-004
Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Modules for Room-Temperature Gamma Radiation Detection

HSHQDC-12-C-00111 DNDOSBIR12-04-FP-001-RMD
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase I)
TIBr Spectrometers with Improved Long Term Stability at Room Temperature

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

09/21/2012
to
03/20/2013
$149,999.00

The ideal semiconductor detector for the nuclear non-proliferation application should have good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, easy portability, low power requirments and low cost. In the proposed effort, we plan to continue our development of thallium bromide (TIBr), a wide band gap semiconductor that recently has shown great promise as a gamma-ray detector material. In addition to high density (7.5 g/cm2), high atomic number constituents (81,35) and wide band gap (2.68 eV) the material melts congruently at a modest temperature (480¿C) and does not undergo a phase change as the crystal cools to room temperature, which allows use of melt-based crystal growth approaches to produce large volume TIBr crystals. The cubic crystal structure of TIBr also simplifies crystal growth and device processing. As a result of recent progress in purification, crystal growth and processing, TIBr detectors with mobility-lifetime products of mid 10^-3 cm2/V for electrons and mid 10^-4 cm2/V for holes has been achieved. This has enabled the development of TIBr gamma-ray spectrometers with thickness exceeding 1 cm. TIBr detectors fabricated in our lab have exhibited < 1% energy resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV with cooling and depth correction. To date, to obtain excellent long term performance of thick TIBr detector arrays, modest cooling (to ~-20 C) has been requied. We have demonstrated stable TIBr detector performance exceeding 9 months with the detector continuously biased and operated at ~18¿C. This level of cooling is easily achieved with thermoelectric cooler. Cooling however, does increase the power budget of a detector system. In addition to cooling as a method to obtain long term TIBr detector stability, research at RMD and elsewhere has shown that surgace processing, electrode materials and thermal annealing significantly influence the long term stability of TIBr detectors operated at room temperature. RMD and its affiliated research teams have demonstrated thin TIBr detectors with long term stability exceeing 50 days at room temperature. It is our goal in this program to further investigate the effects of surface processing, electrodes and annealing on long term stability of TIBr detectors operated at room temperature. In addition, doping will be investigated as a method for modifying ionic conductivity. Dr. Harry Tuller's group at the materials science department of MIT will collaborate with RMD on this aspect of the project. Ultimately our goal is to develop TIBr spectrometers that are stable for more than 1 year at room temperature. Such as efficient, high resolution detector will find applications in nuclear monitoring areas such as nuclear treaty verificiation, dafeguards, environmental monitoring, nuclear waste cleanup, and border security. Nuclear and particle physics as well as astrophysics are other fields of science were gamma-ray spectrometers are used. The developed detectors should have the following advantages: - Efficient detection of gamma-rays (better than CZT per unit volume - Energy resolution < 1% (FWHM) at 662 keV at room temperature - Lower cost than CZT-based system due to lower cost crystal growth

12.1-004
Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Modules for Room-Temperature Gamma Radiation Detection

HSHQDC-13-C-00070 DNDOSBIR12-04-FP-001-RMD-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
TlBr Spectrometers with Improved Long-Term Stability at Room Temperature

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

08/13/2013
to
08/12/2015
$999,929.52

The ideal semiconductor detector for the nuclear non-proliferation application should have good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, easy portability, low power requirements and low cost. In the proposed effort, we plan to continue our development of thallium bromide (TlBr), a wide band gap semiconductor that recently has shown great promise as a gamma-ray detector material. In addition to high density (7.5 g/cm3), high atomic number constituents (81, 35) and wide band gap (2.68 eV) the material melts congruently at a modest temperature (480 'C) and does not undergo a phase change as the crystal cools to room temperature, which allows use of melt-based crystal growth approaches to produce large volume TlBr crystals. The cubic crystal structure of TlBr also simplifies crystal growth and device processing. As a result of recent progress in purification, crystal growth and processing, TlBr detectors with mobility-lifetime products of mid 10-3 cm2/V for electrons and mid 10-4 cm2/V for holes has been achieved. This has enabled the development of TlBr gamma-ray spectrometers with thickness exceeding 1 cm. TlBr detectors fabricated in our lab have exhibited < 1 % energy resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV with cooling and depth correction. To date, to obtain excellent long term performance of thick TlBr detector arrays, modest cooling (to ~ - 20 C) has been required. We have demonstrated stable TlBr detector performance exceeding 9 months with the detector continuously biased and operated at ? 18 'C. This level of cooling is easily achieved with a thermoelectric cooler. Cooling however, does increase the power budget of a detector system. In addition to cooling as a method to obtain long term TlBr detector stability, research at RMD and elsewhere has shown that surface processing, electrode materials and thermal annealing significantly influence the long term stability of TlBr detectors operated at room temperature. During Phase I RMD has demonstrated 5 mm thick TlBr detectors with long term stability exceeding 90 days at room temperature. It is our goal in Phase II to further investigate the effects of surface processing, electrodes and annealing on long term stability of TlBr detectors operated at room temperature. In addition, doping will be investigated as a method for modifying ionic conductivity. Dr. Harry Tuller's group at the materials science department of MIT will collaborate with RMD on this aspect of the project. Ultimately our goal is to develop TlBr spectrometers that are stable for more than 1 year at room temperature. Such an efficient, high resolution detector will find applications in nuclear monitoring areas such as nuclear treaty verification, safeguards, environmental monitoring, nuclear waste cleanup, and border security. Nuclear and particle physics as well as astrophysics are other fields of science were gamma-ray spectrometers are used. The developed detectors should have the following advantages: - Efficient detection of gamma-rays (better than CZT per unit volume) - Energy resolution < 1% (FWHM) at 662 keV at room temperature - Lower cost than CZT-based system due to lower cost crystal growth

12.1-005
Near-Room Temperature, Low-Cooling-Power Operation of a Large-Volume Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Detector

HSHQDC-12-C-00107 DNDOSBIR12-05-FP-001-RMD
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase I)
High Efficiency TlBr Gamma-Ray Detector Module

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

09/21/2012
to
03/20/2013
$149,999.00

The ideal semiconductor detector for nuclear monitoring should have good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, easy portability and low cost. In the proposed effort, we plan to develop a detector module for nuclear monitoring based on thallium bromide (TlBr), a wide band gap semiconductor that recently has shown great promise as a gamma-ray detector material. TlBr has a number of very promising properties. It has high density (7.5 g/cm3) and high atomic number constituents (81, 35), which promises high sensitivity. The electrical resistivity of the material is high (>1010 -cm) without deep level doping. Furthermore, the material melts congruently at a modest temperature (480 'C) and does not undergo a phase change as the crystal cools to room temperature, which allows use of melt-based crystal growth approaches such as Bridgman and Czochralski to produce large volume TlBr crystals. The cubic crystal structure of TlBr also simplifies crystal growth and device processing. As a result of recent progress in purification, crystal growth and processing, TlBr detectors with mobility-lifetime (6t) products of mid 10-3 cm2/V for electrons and mid 10-4 cm2/V for holes has been achieved. This has enabled the development of TlBr gamma-ray spectrometers with thickness exceeding 1 cm. In fact, TlBr detectors fabricated at RMD have exhibited < 1 % energy resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV upon depth correction. These detectors were cooled to -20'C to achieve stable operation. The goal of this Phase I project is to design a cooled, compact TlBr gamma-ray detector module using the 3-dimensional position-sensitive readout technology pioneered by the group at the University of Michigan. The key advancement is to develop a lower power charge sensing ASIC that can digitally sample the outputs of an array of preamplifiers. By sampling the preamplifier outputs, the induced charges on the detector electrodes can be obtained as a function of time, so that digital signal processing can be used to perform gamma-ray spectroscopy, to determine the depth of interaction of individual gamma-ray energy depositions, as well as to measure charge drift time, electric field distribution within TlBr and lifetimes of electrons and holes. The digital ASIC readout system will enable both fundamental research on TlBr detectors and practical operation to perform gamma-ray imaging and spectroscopy outside the laboratory. Since TlBr detectors can operate in a stable manner at -20'C, power consumption of the digital ASIC system should be minimized so that the system can be cooled to required temperature using Peltier coolers. Such an efficient, high resolution, 3-D position sensitive detector module will find application in nuclear monitoring areas such as nuclear treaty verification, safeguards, environmental monitoring, nuclear waste cleanup, and border security. Nuclear and particle physics as well as astrophysics are other fields of science were gamma-ray spectrometers are used. The developed detectors should have the following advantages: - Efficient detection of gamma-rays (better than CZT per unit volume) - Energy resolution < 1% (FWHM) at 662 keV - Lower cost than CZT-based system due to lower cost crystal growth

12.1-005
Near-Room Temperature, Low-Cooling-Power Operation of a Large-Volume Thallium Bromide (TlBr) Crystal Detector

HSHQDC-13-C-00068 DNDOSBIR12-05-FP-001-RMD-II
(HSHQDC-12-R-00052 Phase II)
High Efficiency TlBr Gamma-Ray Detector Module

Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc.
44 Hunt Street
Watertown, MA 02472-4699

08/09/2013
to
07/31/2015
$999,807.89

The ideal semiconductor detector for nuclear monitoring should have good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, easy portability and low cost. In the proposed effort, we plan to develop a detector module for nuclear monitoring based on thallium bromide (TlBr), a wide band gap semiconductor that recently has shown great promise as a gamma-ray detector material. TlBr has a number of very promising properties. It has high density (7.5 g/cm3) and high atomic number constituents (81, 35), which promises high sensitivity. The electrical resistivity of the material is high (>1010 -cm) without deep level doping. Furthermore, the material melts congruently at a modest temperature (480 'C) and does not undergo a phase change as the crystal cools to room temperature, which allows use of melt-based crystal growth approaches such as Bridgman and Czochralski to produce large volume TlBr crystals. The cubic crystal structure of TlBr also simplifies crystal growth and device processing. As a result of recent progress in purification, crystal growth and processing, TlBr detectors with mobility-lifetime (u) products of mid 10-3 cm2/V for electrons and mid 10-4 cm2/V for holes has been achieved. This has enabled the development of TlBr gamma-ray spectrometers with thickness exceeding 1 cm. In fact, TlBr detectors fabricated at RMD have exhibited < 1 % energy resolution (FWHM) at 662 keV upon depth correction. These detectors were cooled to -20'C to achieve stable operation. The goal of this Phase II project is to build a cooled, compact TlBr gamma-ray detector module using the 3-dimensional position-sensitive readout technology pioneered by the group at the University of Michigan. The key advancement is to develop a lower power charge sensing ASIC that can digitally sample the outputs of an array of preamplifiers. By sampling the preamplifier outputs, the induced charges on the detector electrodes can be obtained as a function of time, so that digital signal processing can be used to perform gamma-ray spectroscopy, to determine the depth of interaction of individual gamma-ray energy depositions, as well as to measure charge drift time, electric field distribution within TlBr and lifetimes of electrons and holes. The digital ASIC readout system will enable both fundamental research on TlBr detectors and practical operation to perform gamma-ray imaging and spectroscopy outside the laboratory. Since TlBr detectors can operate in a stable manner at 20C, power consumption of the digital ASIC system should be minimized so that the system can be cooled to required temperature using Peltier coolers. Such an efficient, high resolution, 3-D position sensitive detector module will find application in nuclear monitoring areas such as nuclear treaty verification, safeguards, environmental monitoring, nuclear waste cleanup, and border security. Nuclear and particle physics as well as astrophysics are other fields of science were gamma-ray spectrometers are used. The developed detectors should have the following advantages: - Efficient detection of gamma-rays (better than CZT per unit volume) - Energy resolution < 1% (FWHM) at 662 keV - Lower cost than CZT-based system due to lower cost crystal growth